This tool tracks the following outcomes: Key Findings; Advice; Goals; Recommendations; and Actions from reports delivered by CAFF during 2013-2020

These data can be sorted based upon keywords; the type of outcome; or the programme through which the outcomes were developed; and the results downloaded as an excel file and/or directly emailed to a colleague

 


OutcomesTypePublicationYearURLProject /ProgramRecommendation /Goal to Address
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Food resources are being lost for many Arctic species in Arctic marine environments. Many species have to travel further and expend more energy to feed, leading to concerns about individual health and potential effects at the population levelKey FindingSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Some Arctic species are shifting their ranges northwards to seek more favourable conditions as the Arctic warms. These movements pose unknown consequences for Arctic species and their interactions, such as predation and competition.Key FindingSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Northward movement is easier for more mobile openwater species. Open water species such as polar cod, are more mobile compared to those linked to shelf regions, such as benthic species including some fishes for which suitable habitat may be unavailable if they move northward.Key FindingSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Increasing numbers and diversity of southern species are moving into Arctic waters. In some cases, they may outcompete and prey on Arctic species, or offer a less nutritious food source for Arctic species. Key FindingSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Current trends indicate that species reliant on sea ice for reproduction, resting or foraging will experience range reductions as sea ice retreat occurs earlier and the open water season is prolonged.Key FindingSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Arctic marine species and ecosystems are undergoing pressure from cumulative changes in their physical, chemical and biological environment. Some changes may be gradual, but there may also be large and sudden shifts that can affect how the ecosystem functions. Key FindingSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Increases in the frequency of contagious diseases are being observed. Key FindingSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Arctic freshwater ecosystems are highly threatened by climate change and human development which can alter the distribution and abundance of species and affect biodiversity and the ecosystem services on which many Arctic peoples depend.Key FindingSAFBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Long-term trends of increasing water temperature and decreasing ice cover in freshwater systems have been observed in many areas of the Arctic. Warmer and wetter climate will generally lead to higher concentrations of dissolved organic matter, minerals, and nutrients. Furthermore, impacts related to human population growth (e.g., from increased infrastructure, development, and resource exploration/exploitation) have the potential to contribute to further degradation and nutrient enrichment of freshwater systems in the Arctic.Key FindingSAFBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
These changes (Freshwater ecosystems) could significantly affect lake and river ecosystem processes, causing decreased light penetration in lakes, nutrient enrichment, and sedimentation, and leading to changes in biodiversity, occurrence, and biomass of Arctic species.Key FindingSAFBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
With continued warming, the boundaries of Arctic climatic zones (e.g., sub-, low, and high Arctic, as defined by the Arctic Biodiversity Assessment) are expected to shift and cause an overall reduction in the spatial extent that can be considered part of the Arctic ecoregion, based on temperature and vegetation conditions.Key FindingSAFBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Warmer water temperatures in Arctic rivers and lakes may lead to an increase in overall biodiversity as southern species expand their ranges northward, but the highly cold-adapted and cold-tolerant species that currently inhabit the Arctic will be at risk due to competition from non-native species and face possible extirpation when their thermal tolerances are exceeded.Key FindingSAFBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Cold-water endemic species unique to the Arctic, such as Arctic char, may suffer regional losses with the potential for extinctions in extreme cases.Key FindingSAFBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Patterns of biodiversity vary across the Arctic, but ecoregions that have historically warmer temperatures and connections to the mainland generally have higher biodiversity than those with cold temperatures (high latitude or altitude) or on remote islands.Key FindingSAFBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Fennoscandian lakes (in particular, inland non-mountainous regions) are biodiversity hotspots for macrophytes, zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish in lakes. Lakes in Coastal Alaska are most diverse with regards to diatom and phytoplankton species and among the most diverse ecoregions for fish in the Arctic. Ecoregions in Canada, Greenland, Iceland, and Russia were less diverse for many of the lake biotic FECs.Key FindingSAFBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Fennoscandia, coastal Alaska, and western and southern Canada have the most diverse ecoregions across riverine diatoms, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish FECs.Key FindingSAFBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
The warmer climate in Fennoscandia and southern ecoregions of Canada as well as the strong geographical connectivity to the mainland explains the overall high biodiversity of these areas. Similarly, high connectivity of the Alaskan coastal region and lack of ice cover in the last glaciation may have contributed to high biodiversity of many FECs.Key FindingSAFBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Biodiversity in mountainous and alpine ecoregions of North America and Fennoscandia is generally lower than that of surrounding ecoregions for both lakes and rivers. This likely reflects harsh environmental conditions generally found in mountainous regions or possibly the effect of dispersal barriers to species such as migrating fish.Key FindingSAFBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Biodiversity is lower on remote islands where movement and introduction of species can be limited; this is particularly evident in Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Svalbard, and Wrangel Island.Key FindingSAFBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Temperature is the overriding and predominant driver for most FECs, but climate, geographical connectivity, geology, and smaller-scale environmental parameters such as water chemistry are all key drivers of Arctic freshwater biodiversity.Key FindingSAFBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Biodiversity of benthic macroinvertebrates in rivers and lakes decreased at higher latitudes, particularly above 68°N. This northward decline in diversity was strongly related to decreasing maximum summer temperatures, indicating that tolerance for cold temperatures limits the number of benthic macroinvertebrate species that can inhabit the high Arctic.Key FindingSAFBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Latitudinal trends were weaker for other FECs, but high-latitude lakes and rivers showed differences in diversity and composition of fish, plankton, diatoms, and macrophytes compared to lower-latitude systems. The differences reflected temperature and precipitation gradients as well as barriers to movement, glaciation history, and bedrock geology, which affects water chemistry.Key FindingSAFBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Cyanobacteria species, of which some are toxin-producing, were most abundant in lakes during the warmest years on record. As temperatures continue to increase, cyanobacteria blooms can be expected to become more common.Key FindingSAFBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Available long-term monitoring records and research data indicate that freshwater biodiversity has changed over the last 200 years, with shifts in species composition being less dramatic in areas where temperatures have been more stable.Key FindingSAFBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Long-term fish monitoring records from Iceland indicate declining abundance of Arctic char and increasing dominance of Atlantic salmon and brown trout since the 1980s. At the same time there has been an increase in spring and fall water temperatures that might affect spawning and hatching time of Arctic char.Key FindingSAFBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Diatoms in lake sediment cores show shifts in community composition over the last 200 years, with changes in the dominant species that reflect changes in the temperature zones in the water column of lakes.Key FindingSAFBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Changes in diatom composition over the last 200 years were weakest in eastern Canadian coastal ecoregions (e.g., northern Labrador and Quebec) where temperatures have historically been more stable with less evidence of warming.Key FindingSAFBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Existing (freshwater) data are not sufficient to describe biodiversity patterns in all ecoregions, and increased sampling is required to improve understanding of biodiversity change.Key FindingSAFBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Differences in composition among stations were most often due to finding new species, which suggests that additional sampling (more stations) is required to accurately estimate the number of species present in Arctic freshwater systems.Key FindingSAFBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Better coordination and harmonized sampling, sample processing, and data storage across the Arctic will improve our ability to detect and monitor changes in freshwater biodiversity.Key FindingSAFBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
There is a substantial lack of (freshwater) data for large parts of the North American and Russian Arctic and few long-term data sets for Arctic lakes and rivers.Key FindingSAFBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Differences in sampling methods, sample processing, and data storage limit spatial comparisons, for example, where different lake habitats (shallow or deep water) are sampled or vastly different sampling equipment or approaches are used.Key FindingSAFBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
All countries have data sets that allow for identification of baseline levels for most FECs, but only a few countries (such as Finland and Sweden) have an extensive spatial coverage and very few countries have long time series. Data collection was not exhaustive, and there are likely additional data that exist for each country that may contribute to the assessment of freshwater biodiversity; however, significant gaps will remain even with a more extensive search of existing data sources.Key FindingSAFBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Instruments such as the European Water Framework Directive promote routine monitoring of lake and river FECs. But where a country, ecoregion, or FEC is not covered by such instruments, monitoring is irregular, has poor spatial coverage, or is absent.Key FindingSAFBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
The vast expanse of the Arctic region in some countries (e.g., Canada, Russia) and the high monetary cost and logistical constraints associated with sampling in some regions (e.g., northern Canada and Russia, Greenland, Svalbard, Faroe Islands) limits the possibility of routine monitoring. This leads to sparse sample coverage in space and time, particularly where funds are not secure.Key FindingSAFBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
In countries where routine government monitoring is limited or does not occur, data must come from other sources (e.g., academic research), where unsecure funding often leads to single-event sampling, meaning that change over time cannot be examined.Key FindingSAFBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
A. A lack of trust and coordination: (1) within and among permitting agencies; (2) among agencies and the mining industry; and (3) across agencies, mining industry, and the public, especially in relation to Indigenous communities. Lack of coordination, meaningful communication (e.g., listening), transparency and follow-through among parties often results in enduring mistrust and missed opportunities for collaboration that could benefit biodiversity. Coordination and agreement on good sustainability practices could result in an improved public image and greater
trust of the mining industry.
Key FindingMainstreaming Biodiversity in Arctic Mining Challenges and Proposed Solutions2019https://caff.is/mainstreamingMainstreaming
B. Establishment of mutually beneficial partnerships with communities impacted by mining operations. In order to operate effectively, the mining industry needs buy-in from impacted communities (i.e., Social License to Operate). This is especially important across much of the Arctic where Indigenous Peoples and/or local communities often depend on ecosystem services for food security, cultural and spiritual connections and other purposes. Because of differences in cultures and/or values, limited shared understanding and lack of trust, it can be difficult to meaningfully engage with Indigenous and/or local communities, develop positive relationships and work towards common goals. Although there are good examples of where the mining industry operating in the Arctic is working collaboratively with government agencies, communities and others to minimize their impacts on biodiversity, public perception of the mining industry in impacted communities is not always favourable.Key FindingMainstreaming Biodiversity in Arctic Mining Challenges and Proposed Solutions2019https://caff.is/mainstreamingMainstreaming
C. Lack of alignment among government agencies in regard to environmental permitting, particularly environmental review requirements. Local, state/territory and national permitting requirements can be perceived by industry to be arduous, repetitive and/or misaligned causing unnecessary burdens that do not clearly translate into useful information or benefits for biodiversity conservation or sustainable development. For example, excessive data collection and reporting requirements without strategic coordination and partnering that could benefit government agencies, industry and the public. This can lead to separate government agencies asking for the same information in different ways or seeking extraneous information that does not help inform decision-making, resulting in unnecessary time and resources expended.Key FindingMainstreaming Biodiversity in Arctic Mining Challenges and Proposed Solutions2019https://caff.is/mainstreamingMainstreaming
D. Agreement on data (e.g. cultural and ecological indicators of change) collection, management, and sharing of information. Baseline data and other information about the status and health of plants, animals and ecosystems in and around mine sites are important for the mining industry, communities, government agencies and CAFF. An important challenge is to ensure that data generated by the mining industry are accessible in a form that can inform broader understandings of Arctic biodiversity status and trends.Key FindingMainstreaming Biodiversity in Arctic Mining Challenges and Proposed Solutions2019https://caff.is/mainstreamingMainstreaming
E. Difficulty establishing clear processes for engaging Indigenous Peoples and utilizing TK. A need exists to work together with Indigenous communities in a meaningful way that respects and utilizes TK along with science to inform decisions regarding biodiversity (e.g., key research questions informing biotic and abiotic monitoring decisions). There are existing examples of design, operations, and reclamation plans of some mines located in the Arctic region that have been influenced by TK and through consultations with local communities, but there is not a consistent or systematic way for gathering and utilizing TK and science so outcomes are useful, credible and benefit communities and the mining industry to the greatest extent possible.Key FindingMainstreaming Biodiversity in Arctic Mining Challenges and Proposed Solutions2019https://caff.is/mainstreamingMainstreaming
F. Establishment of a system that is acceptable, predictable and measurable for industry, stakeholders and authorities to manage ecological compensation6, taking into account the vulnerability of Arctic nature and the long timeframes and slow pace of renewal associated with cold climates. The process of ecological compensation for unavoidable impacts is based on many assumptions and is inherently uncertain. A primary challenge is predicting with certainty what biodiversity benefits will be gained through the compensatory action (e.g., protection or restoration of another piece of land) and then measuring actual benefits versus predictions. Compensation should be designed and implemented so that the benefits to nature in the compensation area are equal to or higher than the value lost in the affected area. Ideally, that benefit would occur prior to the development action, but practically, that is often not the case. Key FindingMainstreaming Biodiversity in Arctic Mining Challenges and Proposed Solutions2019https://caff.is/mainstreamingMainstreaming
The extent of protected areas within the CAFF boundary has almost doubled since 1980. While progress has been made, it has not been even across ecosystems and this report does not analyse how well the suite of protected areas meet the test of being an “ecologically connected, representative, and effectively managed network of protected and specially managed areas that protects and promotes the resilience of the
biological diversity, ecological processes and cultural heritage” (PAME 2015) of the Arctic.
Key FindingArctic Protected Areas Indicator Report 2017 2017https://caff.is/assessment-series/414-arctic-protected-areas-indicator-report-2017/downloadCBMP
In 2016, 20.2% of the Arctic’s terrestrial area and 4.7% of the Arctic’s marine areas are protected. Protected area coverage of the Arctic’s terrestrial ecosystems exceeds Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 which aims for at least 17% of terrestrial and inland water to be protected by 2020. The protected area coverage of marine areas currently falls short of the Aichi Target goal for 10% of coastal and marine areas to be protected by 2020.Key FindingArctic Protected Areas Indicator Report 20182017https://caff.is/assessment-series/414-arctic-protected-areas-indicator-report-2017/downloadCBMP
There are between 39.0 and 39.2 million wild geese in the northern hemisphere belonging to 68 populations of 15 species.Key FindingA Global Audit of the Status and Trends of Arctic And Northern Hemisphere Goose Populations2019https://www.caff.is/gooseCBMP
All but one of the Arctic and Northern Goose populations number between 1000 and 10 million individuals. Only the Western Palearctic population of the Lesser White-fronted Goose lies on the brink of extinction with just over 100 individuals, and only the midcontinent population of lesser snow geese in North America exceeds 10 million adults.Key FindingA Global Audit of the Status and Trends of Arctic And Northern Hemisphere Goose Populations2019https://www.caff.is/gooseCBMP
“White” geese (Chen) are most numerous (17.2 million individuals of 3 species) and all 6 populations have increased in the last 10 years.Key FindingA Global Audit of the Status and Trends of Arctic And Northern Hemisphere Goose Populations2019https://www.caff.is/gooseCBMP
“Black” geese (Branta) number c.13.7 million individuals of 27 populations from 5 species, of which 19 populations show stable or increasing trends over the last 10 years.Key FindingA Global Audit of the Status and Trends of Arctic And Northern Hemisphere Goose Populations2019https://www.caff.is/gooseCBMP
“Grey” geese (Anser) comprise 35 populations of 8.1-8.4 million individuals, of which 15 have declined in the last 10 years, especially in East Asia.Key FindingA Global Audit of the Status and Trends of Arctic And Northern Hemisphere Goose Populations2019https://www.caff.is/gooseCBMP
Most estimates of Goose populations derive from total counts of all individuals, 8 populations combine some form of capture-mark-recapture approach (almost exclusively in North America) but 15 populations are based upon expert opinion, mostly in East and Central Asia. Less than half of the estimates for all populations were thought to fall within 10% of the true totals.Key FindingA Global Audit of the Status and Trends of Arctic And Northern Hemisphere Goose Populations2019https://www.caff.is/gooseCBMP
Most Goose populations showed increasing or stable trends over the last 10 years, but our ability to truly judge these trends is highly variable among populations.Key FindingA Global Audit of the Status and Trends of Arctic And Northern Hemisphere Goose Populations2019https://www.caff.is/gooseCBMP
In North America, Goose population estimates are good; trends are generally of the best quality and most populations are increasing or stable.Key FindingA Global Audit of the Status and Trends of Arctic And Northern Hemisphere Goose Populations2019https://www.caff.is/gooseCBMP
Most European Goose populations are increasing or stable, yet several populations lack effective count coordination networks to generate annual assessments of total population size and trends.Key FindingA Global Audit of the Status and Trends of Arctic And Northern Hemisphere Goose Populations2019https://www.caff.is/gooseCBMP
In Central and Eastern Asia, where the greatest declines in Goose populations are suspected, good population estimates and count data series over sufficient long time horizons to offer a robust basis for generating trends are generally lacking, with the notable exception of excellent count data from Korea and Japan. However, the situation is rapidly improving in China, where count networks and coordination with flyway partners are being established.Key FindingA Global Audit of the Status and Trends of Arctic And Northern Hemisphere Goose Populations2019https://www.caff.is/gooseCBMP
Many Goose populations with the poorest population information are those which we suspect are showing the greatest declines.Key FindingA Global Audit of the Status and Trends of Arctic And Northern Hemisphere Goose Populations2019https://www.caff.is/gooseCBMP
The most urgent priorities for the future are to (i) improve our knowledge of population distributions to better inform our definitions of discrete flyway populations; (ii) implement effective mechanisms to at least periodically measure abundance for all northern hemisphere goose populations to assess trends over time; (iii) initiate research to identify factors responsible for declining trends in populations of concern, and (iv) evaluate potential negative effects of overabundant goose populations on habitat and sympatric species.Key FindingA Global Audit of the Status and Trends of Arctic And Northern Hemisphere Goose Populations2019https://www.caff.is/gooseCBMP
To interpret changes in population size, there is an increasing need to understand whether these are due to shifts in range, changes in reproductive success or changes in annual survival.Key FindingA Global Audit of the Status and Trends of Arctic And Northern Hemisphere Goose Populations2019https://www.caff.is/gooseCBMP
For this reason we urge wider gathering of age ratio data, and marking programmes to provide annual assessments of reproductive success and survival, particularly amongst populations showing declines.Key FindingA Global Audit of the Status and Trends of Arctic And Northern Hemisphere Goose Populations2019https://www.caff.is/gooseCBMP
There is a very clear need to establish or expand annual reporting on population size and demographic trends to make such information accessible to decision makers and stakeholders in a timely fashion.Key FindingA Global Audit of the Status and Trends of Arctic And Northern Hemisphere Goose Populations2019https://www.caff.is/gooseCBMP
1. Increase opportunities for cross-cultural learning, understanding and trust
building.
Key MessagesArctic Traditional Knowledge and Wisdom: Changes in the North American Arctic 2017https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/412-arctic-traditional-knowledge-and-wisdom-changes-in-the-north-american-arcticAssessments
2. Create best practices through demonstration projects, and on-the-ground work, including an evaluation of past projects, what worked, and what didn’t.Key MessagesArctic Traditional Knowledge and Wisdom: Changes in the North American Arctic 2018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/412-arctic-traditional-knowledge-and-wisdom-changes-in-the-north-american-arcticAssessments
3. Develop effective partnerships and/or formalized systems of sharing among indigenous peoples and scientists to more fully engage this wide range of human intelligence to understand the complexities of managing biodiversity in the Arctic; for example, TK&W can provide early warnings of environmental change, indicate connections between phenomena, and fill data gaps.Key MessagesArctic Traditional Knowledge and Wisdom: Changes in the North American Arctic 2019https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/412-arctic-traditional-knowledge-and-wisdom-changes-in-the-north-american-arcticAssessments
4. Increase financial and other support for indigenous peoples and organizations to actively engage in research and science initiatives and to effectively address their concerns.Key MessagesArctic Traditional Knowledge and Wisdom: Changes in the North American Arctic 2019https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/412-arctic-traditional-knowledge-and-wisdom-changes-in-the-north-american-arcticAssessments
5. Encourage equal partnership and participation at the outset and throughout research projects that affect Arctic indigenous peoples.Key MessagesArctic Traditional Knowledge and Wisdom: Changes in the North American Arctic 2019https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/412-arctic-traditional-knowledge-and-wisdom-changes-in-the-north-american-arcticAssessments
6. Work to remove institutional barriers and improve processes for the inclusion of TK&W and involvement of Arctic indigenous peoples.Key MessagesArctic Traditional Knowledge and Wisdom: Changes in the North American Arctic 2019https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/412-arctic-traditional-knowledge-and-wisdom-changes-in-the-north-american-arcticAssessments
Arctic Indigenous Peoples and Wetland Protected Areas: Formal Indigenous representation in management processes occurs in over one-fourth of the surveyed sites.Key FindingsArctic Wetlands and Indigenous Peoples Study2019https://www.caff.is/assessment-series/all-assessment-documents/518-arctic-wetlands-and-indigenous-peoples-studyWetlands
Arctic Indigenous Wetlands Use: Indigenous Peoples have significant ties to wetland protected areas in the Arctic and acknowledging and fostering these relationships in partnership with management authorities can strengthen outcomes.Key FindingsArctic Wetlands and Indigenous Peoples Study2019https://www.caff.is/assessment-series/all-assessment-documents/518-arctic-wetlands-and-indigenous-peoples-studyWetlands
Arctic Indigenous Peoples and Wetlands Management: Most management and conservation plans, as well as other official information on wetland protected areas, fail to document Indigenous resource use in a systematic or functional way and as a result, do not provide a complete picture of resource use and management within the areas.Key FindingsArctic Wetlands and Indigenous Peoples Study2019https://www.caff.is/assessment-series/all-assessment-documents/518-arctic-wetlands-and-indigenous-peoples-studyWetlands
Arctic Indigenous Participation in Wetlands Conservation: Engaging Indigenous leadership and communities in participatory processes can strengthen conservation strategies and contribute to forwarding conservation objectives and goals.Key FindingsArctic Wetlands and Indigenous Peoples Study2019https://www.caff.is/assessment-series/all-assessment-documents/518-arctic-wetlands-and-indigenous-peoples-studyWetlands
Though many Arctic countries have marine plastic policies in place, few directly address plastic ingestion monitoring for seabirds, despite the increasing levels of plastic in seabirds across the ArcticKey FindingsReview of plastic pollution policies of Arctic countries in relation to seabirds2020[Awaiting layout]AMBI, Cbird
Importantly, though not directly addressing seabirds, policies on prevention, reduction and removal of plastic in the marine environment can also help reduce plastic impacts on seabirds.Key FindingsReview of plastic pollution policies of Arctic countries in relation to seabirds2020[Awaiting layout]AMBI, Cbird
Marine plastic policy and programs in the Arctic are implemented inconsistently across regions:

• until the completion of the Arctic Council Regional Action Plan on Marine Litter, there is no pan-Arctic framework to address marine plastic pollution.
• there is a lack of enforcement and follow-up monitoring, making it difficult to determine effectiveness of these policies.
Key FindingsReview of plastic pollution policies of Arctic countries in relation to seabirds2020[Awaiting layout]AMBI, Cbird
To curb this environmental contaminant (plastic), pan-Arctic and international collaboration are needed to implement consistent policies and programs. Additionally, international standardized research and monitoring programs for marine plastic are required to inform these decisions and facilitate comparisons across regions.Key FindingsReview of plastic pollution policies of Arctic countries in relation to seabirds2020[Awaiting layout]AMBI, Cbird
Plastic pollution is a global environmental issue that affects a wide range of wildlife species and is increasing even in remote areas, such as the ArcticKey FindingsPlastic ingestion by seabirds in the circumpolar Arctic: A review2020[Awaiting layout]AMBI, Cbird
Plastic pollution is a global environmental issue that affects a wide range of wildlife species and is increasing even in remote areas, such as the ArcticKey FindingsPlastic ingestion by seabirds in the circumpolar Arctic: A review2020[Awaiting layout]AMBI, Cbird
This review suggests that plastic ingestion by seabirds is widespread in the Arctic, where over half of arctic seabirds examined have incidences of plastic ingestion. However, we know relatively little about plastic ingestion in many arctic seabirds, and there remain considerable gaps in spatial and temporal information. Further, studies often have small sample sizes or fail to report important metrics of plastic ingestion, making it difficult to compare studies across regions and time. Thus, it is important to continue monitoring seabirds as indicators of marine plastics to assess global trends and risks to arctic seabird populationsKey FindingsPlastic ingestion by seabirds in the circumpolar Arctic: A review2020[Awaiting layout]AMBI, Cbird
Given the increasing number of studies on plastic ingestion by seabirds, standardized methods are needed to compare studies spatially and temporally. When data are collected and analysed using standardized methods, it will not only improve our ability to understand the distribution of plastic in the marine environment, but also allow us to assess trends in marine plastic on a global scale.Key FindingsPlastic ingestion by seabirds in the circumpolar Arctic: A review2020[Awaiting layout]AMBI, Cbird
There is mistrust between Arctic indigenous peoples and scientists, and scientists often lack adequate preparation for working cross-culturally.Key FindingsArctic Traditional Knowledge and Wisdom: Changes in the North American Arctic2017https://caff.is/monitoring-series/412-arctic-traditional-knowledge-and-wisdom-changes-in-the-north-american-arctic/downloadTraditional Knowledge, Wisdom
There is no consistent approach to working with Traditional Knowledge and WisdomKey FindingsArctic Traditional Knowledge and Wisdom: Changes in the North American Arctic2017https://caff.is/monitoring-series/412-arctic-traditional-knowledge-and-wisdom-changes-in-the-north-american-arctic/downloadTraditional Knowledge, Wisdom
Research is not year-round and data gaps are many in the remote ArcticKey FindingsArctic Traditional Knowledge and Wisdom: Changes in the North American Arctic2017https://caff.is/monitoring-series/412-arctic-traditional-knowledge-and-wisdom-changes-in-the-north-american-arctic/downloadTraditional Knowledge, Wisdom
Fragmented research, lack of people working across disciplinesKey FindingsArctic Traditional Knowledge and Wisdom: Changes in the North American Arctic2017https://caff.is/monitoring-series/412-arctic-traditional-knowledge-and-wisdom-changes-in-the-north-american-arctic/downloadTraditional Knowledge, Wisdom
Funding is inconsistent, often leaving out the involvement of Arctic indigenous peoplesKey FindingsArctic Traditional Knowledge and Wisdom: Changes in the North American Arctic2017https://caff.is/monitoring-series/412-arctic-traditional-knowledge-and-wisdom-changes-in-the-north-american-arctic/downloadTraditional Knowledge, Wisdom
It can be difficult for researchers to understand Traditional Knowledge and Wisdom, how it is validated, how to best apply it, especially elder wisdom, and how to effectively partnerKey FindingsArctic Traditional Knowledge and Wisdom: Changes in the North American Arctic2017https://caff.is/monitoring-series/412-arctic-traditional-knowledge-and-wisdom-changes-in-the-north-american-arctic/downloadTraditional Knowledge, Wisdom
Institutional structures can marginalize other forms of knowledgeKey FindingsArctic Traditional Knowledge and Wisdom: Changes in the North American Arctic2017https://caff.is/monitoring-series/412-arctic-traditional-knowledge-and-wisdom-changes-in-the-north-american-arctic/downloadTraditional Knowledge, Wisdom
Arctic ecosystem services: Key Finding 1.1. Featuring ecosystem services in policy development and implementation is needed to help define and balance societal needs and priorities in the rapidly changing Arctic policy landscape.Key FindingsThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Arctic ecosystem services: Key Finding 2.1. Systematic conclusions on Arctic ecosystem services and their status and trends cannot yet be made based on the data gathered in the scoping study.Key FindingsThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Arctic ecosystem services: Key Finding 2.2. Ecosystem services work should take a holistic approach and operate at the level of ecosystem service bundles.Key FindingsThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Arctic ecosystem services: Key Finding 2.3. Although syntheses, guidelines and analyses of policy options at the pan-Arctic scale can raise the profile of ecosystem services and provide direction, work on ecosystem services is most effective when it builds on analysis at smaller scales.Key FindingsThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Arctic ecosystem services: Key Finding 2.4. Arctic ecosystem services provide benefits to a range of stakeholders at various scales, both directly and indirectly – and the stakeholders who benefit from services and those who affect the availability of the same services are not always the same.Key FindingsThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Arctic ecosystem services: Key Finding 2.5. Reduction of greenhouse gases remains a top priority for conserving ecosystem services.Key FindingsThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Arctic ecosystem services: Key Finding 2.6. Arctic environmental conditions are associated with potential for rapid changes in ecosystem services and high uncertainty – providing a strong incentive to include ecosystem services in policy.Key FindingsThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Governance: Key Finding 3.1. Incorporation of Arctic ecosystem services into policies and governance practices is a
key method for the integration of environmental, economic, and social policies.
Key FindingsThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Governance: Key Finding 3.2. Recognizing Arctic ecosystem services and capturing them in decision-making processes can strengthen the resilience of Arctic social-ecological systems to rapid changes in the region.Key FindingsThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Governance: Key Finding 3.3. The TEEB approach can make the diverse values that people hold for nature visible by assessing and communicating the role of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the economy and to society.Key FindingsThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Governance: Key Finding 3.4. Recognizing, demonstrating and capturing the diverse values of ecosystem services in policy instruments for strategic planning and integrated management of natural resources and space can help reconcile biodiversity conservation with development.Key FindingsThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Governance: Key Finding 3.5. Capturing the benefits and the scarcity of Arctic ecosystem services in economic policies promotes the improvement of economic models and processes.Key FindingsThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Governance: Key Finding 3.6. Mainstreaming of nature’s values by means of ecosystem services requires adjustments to existing policies and instruments as well as the development of new ones.Key FindingsThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Governance: Key Finding 3.7. The Arctic Council, as a leader in bringing together knowledge across the circumpolar North, has an important role to play for further work on Arctic ecosystem services. These ecosystem services are recognized through the values assigned to them from the perspectives of key Arctic stakeholders and rights holders.Key FindingsThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Governance: Key Finding 3.8. Taking an interdisciplinary approach that combines economic and sociocultural analyses to the benefits people receive from Arctic nature faces a number of challenges and concerns. However, it also offers a complementary approach for communicating to decision makers the importance of nature to people, and a toolkit for evaluating policy options and integrating stewardship into decisions.Key FindingsThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Valuing Arctic ecosystem services: Key Finding 4.1. The ecosystem services link is crucial when striving for sustainable management of complex social-ecological systems, and valuation in this context can provide powerful information for evaluating alternative management strategies. Cohesive, integrated and commonly accepted frameworks for assessment of the values of Arctic ecosystems are needed.Key FindingsThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Valuing Arctic ecosystem services: Key Finding 4.2. Any effective, equitable and sustainable policy must account for a diversity of perspectives and encompass a diversity of value systems.Key FindingsThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Valuing Arctic ecosystem services: Key Finding 4.3. There is a persistent risk that social and cultural attributes of ecosystem services are neglected while the monetized economic benefits and ecological causes of ecosystem service change are over-emphasized.Key FindingsThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Valuing Arctic ecosystem services: Key Finding 4.4. Health values are often overlooked in ecosystem services analysesKey FindingsThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Valuing Arctic ecosystem services: Key Finding 5.1. Policy related to increasing and changing development patterns in the Arctic would benefit from incorporation of consideration of ecosystem services. Participants in this scoping project identified a list of policy areas for further consideration, and two of these were assessed as ‘policy examples’ through a TEEB approach, at a broad scoping level: expanding shipping and oil and gas development in the marine environment, and industrial development in the North American Arctic.)Key FindingsThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Policy: Key Finding 6.1. Engagement of Arctic Indigenous organizations and a broad range of stakeholders in participatory development of knowledge and policy alternatives is central to a successful TEEB Arctic study. Follow-up work to this scoping study should be structured so that those who wish to contribute can do so through a range of avenues.Key FindingsThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Policy: Key Finding 6.2. Early policy-maker involvement is crucial for designing effective approaches to policy change. This includes policy-makers at international and national levels, and includes people working on policy not directly related to environmental management, such as trade, business and fiscal policy.Key FindingsThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
1. Broad-scale, multi-species trends for Arctic migratory birds are currently unavailable, although they are necessary for designing and targeting effective conservation strategies to address reported declines in these species.Key FindingsArctic Species Trend Index: Migratory Birds Index2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/322-arctic-species-trend-index-migratory-birds-index/downloadCBMP
2. We use a robust method to describe trends in 129 selected Arctic migratory bird species, using abundance change estimates from inside and outside the Arctic. The selected species have increased in abundance by 40% on average between 1970 and 2011.Key FindingsArctic Species Trend Index: Migratory Birds Index2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/322-arctic-species-trend-index-migratory-birds-index/downloadCBMP
3. This overall trend masks differences between taxa and in flyway regions, with declines in East Asia and Central Asia (-40% and -70%), and recoveries in Africa-Eurasia and the Americas (50% and 15%).Key FindingsArctic Species Trend Index: Migratory Birds Index2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/322-arctic-species-trend-index-migratory-birds-index/downloadCBMP
4. Shorebirds are in decline overall (-10%, Figure 11), with negative trends in the Americas and East Asia (-10% and -70%). Populations of this group are faring better in Africa-Eurasia, where abundance is 40% higher compared to 1970.Key FindingsArctic Species Trend Index: Migratory Birds Index2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/322-arctic-species-trend-index-migratory-birds-index/downloadCBMP
5. Waterfowl have increased across all flyway regions mainly due to geese, but there are differences in the underlying trends for geese/swans and for ducks. Geese and swans combined more than quadrupled in abundance between 1970 and 2011, showing positive change across regions (Figure 20), although coverage is too patchy for reliable conclusions. The increase in geese/swans is largely driven by geese, which make up the majority of this data set. Swans have been in decline since 1994. Duck abundance is 10% lower overall (Figure 19), but there are regional differences, with a halving in the Americas and a 70% increase in Africa-Eurasia.Key FindingsArctic Species Trend Index: Migratory Birds Index2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/322-arctic-species-trend-index-migratory-birds-index/downloadCBMP
6. In the Wadden Sea, Arctic bird abundance is 75% higher in 2010 than in 1980, but the trend has been following a negative trajectory since 2002.Key FindingsArctic Species Trend Index: Migratory Birds Index2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/322-arctic-species-trend-index-migratory-birds-index/downloadCBMP
7. A number of species in our data set showed declines across flyway regions, e.g., Red knot Calidris canutus. Others have increased more recently, e.g., Greater white-fronted goose Anser albifrons.Key FindingsArctic Species Trend Index: Migratory Birds Index2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/322-arctic-species-trend-index-migratory-birds-index/downloadCBMP
8. Due to data limitations, this report is a first step towards developing detailed knowledge of macroecological patterns in Arctic breeding migratory birds. Trends may differ from expert knowledge until data gaps are filled. In addition, we did not examine if abundance change is attributable to factors other than the loss of individuals, e.g., shifts in seasonal ranges.Key FindingsArctic Species Trend Index: Migratory Birds Index2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/322-arctic-species-trend-index-migratory-birds-index/downloadCBMP
9. Due to time and resource limitations some data on abundance change was not included, accounting for some of the data gaps. Additional gaps are due to lack of access to data and the ongoing need for more data collection. It is hoped that this report will trigger increased interest and wider participation from all countries and organisations along the migration routes as international cooperation is vital to ensure the conservation of Arctic migratory birds.Key FindingsArctic Species Trend Index: Migratory Birds Index2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/322-arctic-species-trend-index-migratory-birds-index/downloadCBMP
Biodiversity underpins sustainable development in the Arctic, including economic, social, cultural, and environmental dimensions. Although there is widespread understanding of the importance of economic development for the well-being of Arctic peoples, there is less understanding of the importance of biodiversity for human well-being, including livelihoods, food security and ecosystem services. Economic development in the Arctic should proceed within the constraints of ensuring the long term sustainability of biodiversity and the ecosystem services it provides.Key MessagesArctic Biodiversity Congress 2014https://caff.is/administrative-series/284-arctic-biodiversity-congress-co-chairs-report/downloadABA
The relationship between biodiversity and climate change is complex. While climate change has been identified as the key stressor of Arctic biodiversity, the degree to which it has a negative impact depends on complex relationships between climate change, other stressors, geography, economics, politics and management regimes.Key MessagesArctic Biodiversity Congress 2014https://caff.is/administrative-series/284-arctic-biodiversity-congress-co-chairs-report/downloadABA
Conservation of Arctic biodiversity is a global issue, as so much that happens outside the Arctic affects what happens inside the Arctic and vice versa. Migratory species provide a good basis to develop the partnerships necessary to ensure the long term viability of shared species, and at the same time to increase awareness of the shared global heritage that Arctic biodiversity represents.Key MessagesArctic Biodiversity Congress 2014https://caff.is/administrative-series/284-arctic-biodiversity-congress-co-chairs-report/downloadABA
Credible knowledge of all kinds, and from all sources, is welcomed and needed in the Arctic. This includes science, traditional knowledge and co-produced knowledge as well as knowledge from academia, business, government, civil society and communities.Key MessagesArctic Biodiversity Congress 2014https://caff.is/administrative-series/284-arctic-biodiversity-congress-co-chairs-report/downloadABA
There is a wide gap between what we know and how we act. Although research to fill gaps in knowledge is still needed, there is enough knowledge about what needs to be done to act now. A companion to this message is the urgent need to shorten the time it takes for scientific understanding to be translated into policy in the Arctic.Key MessagesArctic Biodiversity Congress 2014https://caff.is/administrative-series/284-arctic-biodiversity-congress-co-chairs-report/downloadABA
Biodiversity policy in the Arctic has to reflect the needs of people living in the Arctic, many of whom are indigenous.Key MessagesArctic Biodiversity Congress 2014https://caff.is/administrative-series/284-arctic-biodiversity-congress-co-chairs-report/downloadABA
Conservation of biodiversity and of the ecosystem services it provides requires a long-term perspective and sustained actions at many different temporal and spatial scales.Key MessagesArctic Biodiversity Congress 2014https://caff.is/administrative-series/284-arctic-biodiversity-congress-co-chairs-report/downloadABA
1. Partnerships that engage indigenous communities, scientists and other organizations in the co-production of knowledge are essential in understanding environmental change and effects on indigenous communities. This knowledge can contribute to more relevant decision-making.Key MessagesProject Summary: Bering Sea Sub-Network II2015https://caff.is/monitoring-series/352-project-summary-bering-sea-sub-network-ii/download BSSN
2. Research efforts relevant to indigenous communities should establish partnerships with them and contribute to building their capacity, for example by hiring local residents, and providing training and equipmentKey MessagesProject Summary: Bering Sea Sub-Network II2015https://caff.is/monitoring-series/352-project-summary-bering-sea-sub-network-ii/download BSSN
3. Observations from those spending much time on the land and sea are necessary in not only understanding local environmental change but also in understanding the effects of environmental changes on human well-being and traditional practicesKey MessagesProject Summary: Bering Sea Sub-Network II2015https://caff.is/monitoring-series/352-project-summary-bering-sea-sub-network-ii/download BSSN
4. Different environmental changes are occurring within different cultural contexts creating diverse impacts; as such adaptive actions need to be based on local realities and prioritiesKey MessagesProject Summary: Bering Sea Sub-Network II2015https://caff.is/monitoring-series/352-project-summary-bering-sea-sub-network-ii/download BSSN
5. Environmental changes are generally, but not always, resulting in negative effects to traditional harvests with impacts to food and cultural securityKey MessagesProject Summary: Bering Sea Sub-Network II2015https://caff.is/monitoring-series/352-project-summary-bering-sea-sub-network-ii/download BSSN
6. Regulations that impact communities ought to be flexible to allow for adaptation to change and ought to include meaningful local voice through instruments such as co-management to support the food security and sovereignty of indigenous communitiesKey MessagesProject Summary: Bering Sea Sub-Network II2015https://caff.is/monitoring-series/352-project-summary-bering-sea-sub-network-ii/download BSSN
7. Community observations from local and traditional experts have much untapped potential as ‘early warning systems’Key MessagesProject Summary: Bering Sea Sub-Network II2015https://caff.is/monitoring-series/352-project-summary-bering-sea-sub-network-ii/download BSSN
Goal 1.1. Ensure sustainable harvest.GoalInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBird
Goal 1.2. Reduce the threat from illegal killing.GoalInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBird
Goal 1.3. Reduce the threat from environmental pollution.GoalInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBird
Goal 1.4 Reduce predation.GoalInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBird
Goal 1.5. Improve the understanding of large-scale ecosystem effects of climate change by using the kittiwake as a model species.GoalInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBird
Goal 1.6. Increase understanding of impacts of harmful algal blooms (HABs), either through kittiwake food or direct contact with toxins associated with HABs.GoalInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBird
Goal 1.7. Reduce the negative impact of commercial fisheries on adult survival.GoalInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBird
Goal 1.8. Minimize adverse effects of human activities.GoalInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBird
Goal 1.9. Monitor occurrence of diseases in seabird populations.GoalInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBird
Goal 1.10. Avoid constructing windfarms near breeding and foraging sites.GoalInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBird
Goal 2.1. Ensure sustainable harvest.GoalInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBird
Goal 2.2. Reduce predation.GoalInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBird
Goal 2.3. Limit human disturbance to a level that does not decrease breeding success.GoalInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBird
Goal 2.4. Reduce the negative impact of commercial fisheries on breeding success.GoalInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBird
Goal 2.5. Reduce anthropogenic influence reinforcing the negative consequences of climate change.GoalInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBird
Goal 2.6. Reduce the threat of anthropogenic pollution.GoalInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBird
Goal 3.1. Secure breeding cliffs from erosion and sea level rise.GoalInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBird
Goal 3.2. Ensure that new offshore energy development does not come in conflict with foraging habitat use by kittiwakes.GoalInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBird
Goal 3.3. Protect and manage key habitats on land and at sea as a significant contribution to safeguard populations.GoalInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBird
Goal 4.1 Improve feeding conditions.GoalInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBird
Goal 4.2. Improvement of knowledge on limiting demographic factors.GoalInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBird
Goal 4.3. Increase knowledge about the effects of climate change and, if possible, reduce the impact.GoalInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBird
Goal 4.4. Increase knowledge about the colonies in the Arctic.GoalInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBird
Goal 4.5. Determine predation rates and the best mitigation measures to reduce the impact.GoalInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBird
Goal 4.6. Increase the knowledge base on damages made by kittiwakes breeding on man-made structures and the potential conflict.GoalInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBird
Goal 1: The CBMP is relevant to the Arctic States, Permanent Participants, the scientific and Traditional and local knowledge communities, and other partners.

GoalCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/455-circumpolar-biodiversity-monitoring-program-strategic-plan-2018-2021-arcticCBMP
GOAL 1: Objective 1.1: Align CBMP to support CAFF input on Arctic biodiversity into national, regional, and global reporting needs for information to support decision-making.

GoalCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/455-circumpolar-biodiversity-monitoring-program-strategic-plan-2018-2021-arcticCBMP
GOAL 1: Objective 1.2: Align CBMP with ABA implementation

GoalCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/455-circumpolar-biodiversity-monitoring-program-strategic-plan-2018-2021-arcticCBMP
GOAL 1: Objective 1.3: Include Traditional and Local Knowledge in CBMP when possible

GoalCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/455-circumpolar-biodiversity-monitoring-program-strategic-plan-2018-2021-arcticCBMP
GOAL 1: Objective 1.4: Promote the usefulness of the CBMP to the scientific community and facilitate their engagement

GoalCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/455-circumpolar-biodiversity-monitoring-program-strategic-plan-2018-2021-arcticCBMP
GOAL 1: Objective 1.5: Continue development of existing and new headline indicatorsGoalCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/455-circumpolar-biodiversity-monitoring-program-strategic-plan-2018-2021-arcticCBMP
Goal 2: CBMP results support decision making and facilitate coordinated monitoring.GoalCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/455-circumpolar-biodiversity-monitoring-program-strategic-plan-2018-2021-arcticCBMP
GOAL 2: Objective 2.1: Complete development of the Arctic Biodiversity Coastal Monitoring Plan, the Terrestrial and Freshwater SABRs, and the next phase of the Marine Plan implementation.
GoalCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/455-circumpolar-biodiversity-monitoring-program-strategic-plan-2018-2021-arcticCBMP
GOAL 2: Objective 2.2: Communicate CBMP results to stakeholders with content, form, and style meaningful to the audience
GoalCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/455-circumpolar-biodiversity-monitoring-program-strategic-plan-2018-2021-arcticCBMP
GOAL 2: Objective 2.3: Continue to identify and support Expert Networks relevant to the CBMPGoalCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/455-circumpolar-biodiversity-monitoring-program-strategic-plan-2018-2021-arcticCBMP
GOAL 2: Objective 2.4: Facilitate and test implementation of CBMP Arctic Biodiversity Monitoring Plans in the fieldGoalCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/455-circumpolar-biodiversity-monitoring-program-strategic-plan-2018-2021-arcticCBMP
GOAL 2: Objective 2.5: Develop user manual(s) for implementing the CBMP in the field
GoalCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/455-circumpolar-biodiversity-monitoring-program-strategic-plan-2018-2021-arcticCBMP
GOAL 2: Objective 2.6: Increase access to Arctic biodiversity data for the common good of science, decision-making, Arctic residents, and other stakeholders both inside and outside of the Arctic.GoalCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/455-circumpolar-biodiversity-monitoring-program-strategic-plan-2018-2021-arcticCBMP
Goal 3: The CBMP is an adaptive monitoring programGoalCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/455-circumpolar-biodiversity-monitoring-program-strategic-plan-2018-2021-arcticCBMP
GOAL 3: Objective 3.1: Integrate lessons learned from CBMP implementation to inform and adjust future work processes, including within the Arctic Biodiversity

GoalCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/455-circumpolar-biodiversity-monitoring-program-strategic-plan-2018-2021-arcticCBMP
GOAL 3: Objective 3.2: Utilize advice for monitoring based on the SABRs to provide guidance on future monitoringGoalCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/455-circumpolar-biodiversity-monitoring-program-strategic-plan-2018-2021-arcticCBMP
GOAL 3: Objective 3.3: Develop integrated and targeted State of the Arctic Biodiversity ReportingGoalCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/455-circumpolar-biodiversity-monitoring-program-strategic-plan-2018-2021-arcticCBMP
GOAL 3: Objective 3.4: Evaluate the effectiveness of remote sensing as a tool to support biodiversity monitoring and assessmentGoalCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/455-circumpolar-biodiversity-monitoring-program-strategic-plan-2018-2021-arcticCBMP
Goal 4: The CBMP is sustainable (defined by organization, capacity and finances)GoalCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/455-circumpolar-biodiversity-monitoring-program-strategic-plan-2018-2021-arcticCBMP
GOAL 4: Objective 4.1: Refine program coordination and organizationGoalCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/455-circumpolar-biodiversity-monitoring-program-strategic-plan-2018-2021-arcticCBMP
GOAL 4: Objective 4.2: Refine progress reporting for the CBMP

GoalCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/455-circumpolar-biodiversity-monitoring-program-strategic-plan-2018-2021-arcticCBMP
GOAL 4: Objective 4.3: Secure sustainable fundingGoalCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/455-circumpolar-biodiversity-monitoring-program-strategic-plan-2018-2021-arcticCBMP
Goal 1. Raise awareness of the unique opportunity that the Arctic Council and its partners have to inspire the urgent and effective action necessary to protect the Arctic from invasive alien species.GoalArctic Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan 2017https://www.caff.is/strategies-series/415-arctic-invasive-alien-species-strategy-and-action-planARIAS
Goal 2. Improve the capacity of the Arctic Council and its partners to make well-informed decisions on the needs, priorities, and options for preventing, eradicating, and controlling invasive alien species in the Arctic by improving the knowledge base.GoalArctic Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan 2017https://www.caff.is/strategies-series/415-arctic-invasive-alien-species-strategy-and-action-planARIAS
Goal 3, Protect Arctic ecosystems and human well-being by instituting prevention and early detection/rapid response programs for invasive alien species as a matter of priority.GoalArctic Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan 2017https://www.caff.is/strategies-series/415-arctic-invasive-alien-species-strategy-and-action-planARIAS
Monitor populations of selected Arctic seabird species, in one or more Arctic countries GoalCircumpolar Seabird Monitoring Plan2015https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planCbird, CBMP
Monitor, as appropriate, survival, diets, breeding phenology, and productivity of seabirds in a manner that allows changes to be detected GoalCircumpolar Seabird Monitoring Plan2015https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planCbird, CBMP
Provide circumpolar information on the status of seabirds to the management agencies of Arctic countries, in order to broaden their knowledge beyond the boundaries of their country thereby allowing management decisions to be made based on the best available information GoalCircumpolar Seabird Monitoring Plan2015https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planCbird, CBMP
Inform the public through outreach mechanisms as appropriate. GoalCircumpolar Seabird Monitoring Plan2015https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planCbird, CBMP
Provide information on changes in the marine ecosystem by using seabirds as indicators GoalCircumpolar Seabird Monitoring Plan2015https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planCbird, CBMP
Quickly identify areas or issue in the Arctic ecosystem such as declining biodiversity or environmental pressures to target further research and plan management and conservation measuresGoalCircumpolar Seabird Monitoring Plan2015https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planCbird, CBMP
Standardize seabird monitoring efforts throughout the circumpolar Arctic, without losing on- going programs.Circumpolar Seabird Monitoring Plan2015https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planCbird, CBMP
Provide target audiences with timely, accurate, clear and complete information on conservation issues for use in policy and scientific decision-making.GoalCAFF Communications Strategy2011https://caff.is/administrative-series/250-caff-communications-strategy/downloadCommunication and Outreach
Increase the understanding and profile of Arctic biodiversity amongst target audiences and work to incorporate biodiversity conservation across various sectors, ensuring the sustainable use of the Arctic’s natural resources.GoalCAFF Communications Strategy2012https://caff.is/administrative-series/250-caff-communications-strategy/downloadCommunication and Outreach
Raise CAFF’s profile amongst target audiences as a credible, reliable and authoritative voice in Arctic biodiversity research and policy.GoalCAFF Communications Strategy2013https://caff.is/administrative-series/250-caff-communications-strategy/downloadCommunication and Outreach
Strategically employ a variety of ways and means to communicate, recognizing user needs, and the effectiveness of various channels.GoalCAFF Communications Strategy2014https://caff.is/administrative-series/250-caff-communications-strategy/downloadCommunication and Outreach
Provide adaptive, responsive and proactive communications support to CAFF audiences.GoalCAFF Communications Strategy2015https://caff.is/administrative-series/250-caff-communications-strategy/downloadCommunication and Outreach
#1 Facilitate a move to more flexible, adaptable wildlife and habitat management and marine spatial planning approaches that respond effectively to rapid changes in Arctic biodiversity.

Rapid reduction of sea ice shifts baselines and increases the urgency for biodiversity conservation. Planning and management systems are challenged by the pace of change and increased uncertainty. Decision-makers at local, regional, national and international levels face common challenges in anticipating and adapting to
new conditions and addressing conflicting needs, all within a context of heightened global concern for Arctic biodiversity. Designing support for good decision-making should include:
a) analysis of existing systems and how well they are equipped to conserve biodiversity impacted by change in sea ice;
b) identification of common needs and of areas where collaboration through the Arctic Council community would be effective;
c) preparation of resources and tools, such as guidelines and best practices.
RecommendationLife Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change2013https://caff.is/sea-ice-associated-biodiversity/sea-ice-publications/254-life-linked-to-ice-a-guide-to-sea-ice-associated-biodiversity-in-this-time-of-raAssessments (ABA)
#2. Identify measures for detecting early warnings of biodiversity change and triggering conservation actions.

Move towards a stronger reliance on early warnings of ecosystem change, rather than on population trends as triggers for making decisions. Aside from catastrophic die-offs and breeding failure, impacts from changes in sea ice are often incremental, such as a reduced rate of reproduction or survival, or less energy intake from prey. Impacts may take years to be detected in population trends, especially for long-lived animals. Measures such as reduced body condition or changes in ice-dependent prey species are evidence of impacts that can be acted on before declines are detected in abundance or distribution. In some cases these earlier actions will prevent or lessen population declines. Factors to consider in selecting such measures of change include long-term costs and benefits, support by research, ability to be updated, and suitability for determining thresholds for action.
RecommendationLife Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change2013https://caff.is/sea-ice-associated-biodiversity/sea-ice-publications/254-life-linked-to-ice-a-guide-to-sea-ice-associated-biodiversity-in-this-time-of-raAssessments (ABA)
#3. Make more effective use of local and traditional knowledge in Arctic Council assessments and, more broadly, in ecological management.

We need the best available knowledge to detect and respond to rapid Arctic ecosystem change. Local and traditional knowledge sources, by their nature, bring a depth of knowledge and understanding of ecosystems, as well as early warnings of change, that complement science-based studies. However, these knowledge sources are generally underutilized in assessment and management except at the scale of the knowledge holders’ communities. Arctic Council can provide a leadership role in improving this through:

a) developing methods or tools for more effective presentation and analysis of local and traditional knowledge sources in Arctic Council assessments, and
b) placing a focus on this issue through Arctic Council ecosystem-based management initiatives.
RecommendationLife Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change2013https://caff.is/sea-ice-associated-biodiversity/sea-ice-publications/254-life-linked-to-ice-a-guide-to-sea-ice-associated-biodiversity-in-this-time-of-raAssessments (ABA)
#4. Target resource managers when communicating research, monitoring and assessment findings.

Increase efforts to communicate results of research and monitoring relevant to conservation of sea-ice associated biodiversity. Focus particularly on meeting the information needs of those making on-the-ground wildlife conservation decisions on, for example, conditions of development permits or fish and wildlife harvest regulations. Available information, including from recent Arctic Council assessments, may be hard for managers to sift through or to know what is most relevant to them. Work in this area should engage users of the information in designing content and delivery and should consider methods beyond print media. It should take into account time and resource constraints of the users and considerations such as keeping information up to date. Communication may best be delivered at a national or regional level, but benefits and efficiencies of collaboration through Arctic Council could be explored.
RecommendationLife Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change2013https://caff.is/sea-ice-associated-biodiversity/sea-ice-publications/254-life-linked-to-ice-a-guide-to-sea-ice-associated-biodiversity-in-this-time-of-raAssessments (ABA)
Utilizing Traditional and Local Knowledge and involvement of TK holders allows for increased understanding of relationships and changes underway in Arctic ecosystems, current and historical trends, and serves to build valuable partnerships on the ground in Arctic communities:

-- Use Traditional and Local Knowledge within the design and implementation of monitoring plans. The Traditional and Local Knowledge of people living along and off the Arctic Ocean is an invaluable resource for understanding changes in Arctic marine ecosystems and its inclusion should be supported by national governments.
-- Increase engagement and partnerships with local residents and easy to access technology in monitoring programs. Indigenous communities are important ‘first responders’ to catastrophic events. More importantly, their knowledge systems provide a wealth of knowledge that should be involved in the analysis of collected data for increased understanding of current trends and filling historical gaps.
-- There is a need for Traditional and Local Knowledge on a range of FECs and to engage networks of Traditional and Local Knowledge holders and Indigenous organisations.
-- Use both Traditional and Local Knowledge and scientific information on the analysis of harvest levels and status when evaluating overall population health and managing hunts.
AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Better coordination allows for increased value for investment in monitoring programs, better opportunity to compare results, and more ability to draw meaningful conclusions from data:

-- Strategically locate Arctic research stations and monitoring vessels, and use all collected specimens, to allow the collection and analysis of as many CBMP FECs as possible.
-- Ensure research stations operate all year to better study FECs year round.
-- Combine national monitoring with collaborative approaches that allow for sufficient integration and standardization to conduct syntheses across the circumpolar region.
-- Standardize how data are collected, managed and made available. This is a key component in ensuring circumpolar Arctic comparability and should be an important consideration in the implementation of monitoring plans.
-- Encourage states to increase the implementation of existing internationally coordinated monitoring plans.
-- Connect monitoring initiatives and report across scales so that results are meaningful for local, sub-national, national, regional and global decision-makers.
-- Continue to increase coordination between CBMP and other regional and global monitoring initiatives e.g., the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEOBON), International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) and the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service (IPBES).
AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Increased attention to methodology allows for more precise and comparable results, standardized data collection, and ability to link regional monitoring to circumpolar efforts: 
-- Ensure that Arctic monitoring programs are ecosystem-based and include as many CBMP FECs as possible to include functionally important taxonomic groups and improve our understanding of how the ecosystem functions, and how its components are related. Such monitoring programs can serve to underpin management of human activities in the Arctic marine environment.
-- Standardize methodology, including taxonomic identification in order to allow production of comparable data and results.
-- Ensure training of personnel performing sampling and analyses. 
AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Community-based monitoring networks and community relationship building:

-- Increase the span of networks in the CBMP to include Community-based monitoring networks.
-- Communicate information on changes and the results of monitoring between scientists and the public in both directions. This is crucial to the development of effective management strategies and human activities.
AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Filling gaps in knowledge helps us better understand key elements and functions of the ecosystem that can help explain change and understand the system:

-- Encourage the monitoring of relevant physical parameters alongside some FECs that are particularly sensitive to their effects, including sea ice biota and plankton. 
-- Expand monitoring programs to include important taxonomic groups and key ecosystem functions. These gaps are likely due to logistical challenges or lack of expertise in specific fields. 
-- Expand monitoring programs to include those utilizing both TK and science, involvement of Indigenous organizations and build capacity to provide a co-production of knowledge platform.
AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Establish an annual monitoring programme from landfast sea ice at selected Arctic field stations in Canada (Resolute, Cambridge Bay), Greenland (Kobbefjord, Disko Bay, Zackenberg), Norway (Kongsfjorden, Billefjorden, Van Mijenfjorden), and the U.S. (Barrow).AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Establish a standardized monitoring protocol, including sample collection, preservation, microscopic and genetic analyses, taxonomic harmonization, and data sharingAdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Establish opportunistic monitoring from drifting sea ice during cruises of opportunity.AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Collect macrofauna samples in drifting sea ice via ship-based activities, scuba diving, use of electrical suction pumps, under-ice trawl nets, and remotely operated vehicles.AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Follow standardized protocols for monitoring plankton, including sample collection and preservation, microscopic and genetic analyses with taxonomic harmonization.AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Ensure that full data sharing occurs between scientists, and is deposited in publicly-accessible national data centres. Continue to consolidate older data.AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Train highly qualified personnel to perform plankton sampling and species-level analyses, including the use of molecular techniques.AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Establish long-term funded annual monitoring programmes of plankton from selected Arctic field stations or Arctic campaigns/cruises in Canada, the U.S. and Russia, which together with the ongoing monitoring in Greenland, Iceland and Norway will secure a pan-Arctic coverage.AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Develop species indexes and if possible, identify indicator taxa for monitoring.AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Develop a time- and cost-effective, long-term and standardized monitoring of megabenthic communities in all Arctic regions using regular national groundfish assessment surveys. Expanding monitoring on micro-, meio- and
macrobenthic groups is encouraged.
AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Gather information from research programs in regions without regular groundfish-shellfish trawl surveys. These are usually short-term and do not guarantee spatial consistency in sampling, but provide valuable information on benthic biodiversity and community patterns.AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Generate information on benthos from little-known regions, such as the Arctic Basin and Arctic Archipelago, on cryptic or difficult taxonomic groups, and on biological “hotspots”.AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Systematic studies of macrobenthos (grab investigations) and megabenthos (trawl bycatch of regular fishery surveys including both annual studies, as in the Atlantic Arctic, and periodic studies as in the Northern Bering and Chukchi Seas) are the most suitable and practical approach to long-term monitoring.AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Standardize methodology, including taxonomic identification, across regions to assist in regional comparisons. AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Recognize and support the use of Traditional and Local Knowledge as an invaluable resource for understanding of changes in Arctic benthic communities.AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Conduct pan-Arctic taxonomic analyses to clarify zoogeographic patterns that are important for detecting and understanding change.AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Establish and conduct a monitoring plan that is independent of fisheries-related programs to assess changes in fish abundance and distributions. Use information from non-commercial fish species caught in groundfish surveys to provide a first step in this direction.AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Use information from TK holders for monitoring marine fishes. AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Connect monitoring initiatives across scales.AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Conduct laboratory studies to examine the possible effects of abiotic and biotic changes (e.g. temperature, salinity, acidity and diseases) on fish speciesAdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Ensure that data on fisheries (commercial as well as artisanal) are accurate and registered in catch databases (such as the Food Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations). Information from logbooks is also relevant as it can be used to estimate the bycatch and the effects of fisheries.AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Develop methods for assessing diet to increase our understanding of changes in the ecosystem and how they affect seabird populations.AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
When selecting sites for new monitoring, consider proximity to hotspots for marine activities, access to the sea, and inclusion of plankton monitoring.AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Expand colony-based monitoring and strive to include a more complete array of parameters, in particular, diet and measures of survival.AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Consider a higher frequency of monitoring as current levels make it difficult to identify mechanisms or causes of change in populations.AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Conduct targeted surveys and individual tracking studies of seabird interactions at sea to improve our understanding of seabird interactions at sea, where seabirds spend most of their time.AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Continue to conduct at sea surveys on an opportunistic basis.AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Implement existing international monitoring plans such as those for ringed seals and polar bear, with adaptive management principles to address the eleven FEC marine mammal species.AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Expand marine mammal monitoring efforts to include parameters on health, passive acoustics, habitat changes, and telemetry tracking studies.AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Obtain more knowledge about population sizes, densities, and distributions of marine mammal populations in order to understand the relationships between sea ice loss and climate change and to manage Arctic marine mammal populations in an appropriate manner.AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Involve indigenous and local peoples in the design and implementation of monitoring programs so that scientific knowledge and Traditional and Local Knowledge holders are working collaboratively. AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Pursue a multidisciplinary and multi-knowledge approach and a high degree of collaboration across borders and between researchers, local communities and Arctic governments to better understand complex spatial-temporal shifts in drivers, ecological changes and animal health.AdviceSAMBR Key Findings and Advice for Policy Makers2017https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marineCBMP
Harmonize sampling approaches among countries and select appropriate sampling methods and equipment to balance between maintaining consistency and comparability with historical data and alignment with common methods used across the Arctic.AdviceSAFBR Summary for Policy makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Use a regionalized approach based on ecoregions to guide the spatial distribution of sample stations and, ultimately, provide better assessments.AdviceSAFBR Summary for Policy makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Ensure spatial coverage of sampled ecoregions is sufficient to address the overarching monitoring questions of the CBMP across the Arctic and provide sufficient replication.AdviceSAFBR Summary for Policy makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Maintain time series at key locations, and fill gaps where monitoring data are sparse.AdviceSAFBR Summary for Policy makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Develop supplementary monitoring methods that provide better standardized estimates of biodiversity to maximize the likelihood of detecting new and/or invasive species.AdviceSAFBR Summary for Policy makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Make use of recent advances in emerging technologies, including environmental DNA (eDNA) methods and remote sensing approaches.AdviceSAFBR Summary for Policy makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Standardize data storage practices and provide access through a common data source like GBIF.AdviceSAFBR Summary for Policy makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Engage with Indigenous communities to work towards identifying and integrating their TK into efforts to assess Arctic freshwater biodiversity, including change over time.AdviceSAFBR Summary for Policy makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Incorporate TK as an integral part of circumpolar monitoring and observational networks.AdviceSAFBR Summary for Policy makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Engage local communities in monitoring activities through citizen science and incorporate local knowledge as an integral part of future circumpolar monitoring and observational networks.AdviceSAFBR Summary for Policy makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Interact with local communities to enhance outreach to the public (youth in particular) and develop common observational tools.AdviceSAFBR Summary for Policy makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Provide material for training and educational purposes for local residents at all age levels.AdviceSAFBR Summary for Policy makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Establish a circumpolar monitoring network based on a hub-and-spoke model in remote areas.AdviceSAFBR Summary for Policy makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Increase focus on the response of biotic communities to environmental changes by designing monitoring to address impact hypotheses developed in the CBMP-Freshwater Plan.AdviceSAFBR Summary for Policy makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Ensure that the CBMP Freshwater group continues to serve as the focal point for the development and implementation of Arctic, freshwater biodiversity monitoring.AdviceSAFBR Summary for Policy makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Provide resources to maintain and build the CBMP freshwater database for future assessments in order to maximize the benefits of this database.AdviceSAFBR Summary for Policy makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Efforts should be made to document and preserve data from short-term research projects, research expeditions, industrial, university and government programs and to make these data accessible to the public.AdviceSAFBR Summary for Policy makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Status assessments of Arctic lakes and rivers must explore the close association of biodiversity with spatial patterns of physical and chemical quality of aquatic habitats that can drive biological systems.AdviceSAFBR Summary for Policy makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
The CBMP-Freshwater database allows the identification of predominant sampling approaches across the Arctic and should be used to inform the development of harmonized monitoring approaches.AdviceSAFBR Summary for Policy makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Where valuable long-term data series exist, these should be given high priority in monitoring programs, to continue to provide data for the detection of long-term trends and changes in biodiversity.AdviceSAFBR Summary for Policy makers2019https://arcticbiodiversity.is/freshwater/CBMP
Advice to address Key Finding A:

Government agencies could:
-- Engage with industry and communities early and, as possible, outside of the permitting process, with the caveat that conflicts of interest can be an issue during the permitting process.
-- Ensure in the pre-project phase, alignment within and between government entities involved.
-- Ensure effective communication of relevant information, helping to minimize misinformation that is sometimes conveyed about proposed mining projects.
-- Support creation and maintenance of an entity to help facilitate sustainable mining practices.

Mining industry could:
-- Engage with communities and permitting agencies early and often, recognizing that industry may not have all of the answers early in the process.
-- Continue to engage regularly with agencies and communities after permits are granted.
-- Recognize the importance of participation and knowledge of Indigenous Peoples and communities, especially Elders.
-- Create agreements with communities to ensure participation and interests are considered that can lead to mutually beneficial outcomes.
-- Engage local people in research design, data gathering and analysis (Challenge E).
-- Provide support for and participate in national and international sustainable mining initiatives, groups or networks (e.g., the International Council on
Mining and Metals, Convention on Biological Diversity’s Mainstreaming Biodiversity in the Energy and Mining, Infrastructure, and Manufacturing and Processing, and Health Sectors).

CAFF could:
-- Continue to facilitate workshops and other opportunities for dialogue, partnerships, and other actions to help build common understanding and trust among parties.
-- Continue to increase awareness about and help facilitate opportunities for cross-sector engagement. For example, continue to invite industry to biodiversity meetings and conferences; and collaborate on sessions, presentations and events at mining industry meetings and conferences.
-- Work with Permanent Participants and industry to facilitate design of good practices for engaging communities and government agencies throughout all aspects of mining operations.
AdviceMainstreaming Biodiversity in Arctic Mining Challenges and Proposed Solutions2019https://caff.is/mainstreamingMainstreaming
Advice to address Key Finding B:

Mining industry could:
-- Engage in community partnerships where community members have real input and decision-making authority (e.g., co-management of resources).
-- Provide tangible economic incentives for community residents (e.g., employment at mine or related support jobs and community enhancement efforts)
-- Use of agreements (e.g., “good neighbour”/Impact and Benefit Agreements) to attain social license to operate prior to mining activities taking place. Agreements could designate, for example, how to monitor impacts and address compensation for unavoidable effects.
-- Ensure protection of traditional uses of the surrounding area, including linkages to food security and the biodiversity it supports as an important consideration during all phases of the project.

CAFF could:
-- Work with the mining industry and others to continue to develop and share good practices for community engagement and partnerships specific to mining operations.
-- Continue to explore opportunities for further dialogue among Permanent Participants, government agencies and the mining industry to help identify and ultimately achieve mutually beneficial outcomes
AdviceMainstreaming Biodiversity in Arctic Mining Challenges and Proposed Solutions2019https://caff.is/mainstreamingMainstreaming
Advice to address Key Finding C:

Government agencies could:
-- Engage with industry as early as possible, outside of the permitting process, with the caveat that conflict of interest can be an issue during permitting so relevant laws and policies must be adhered to.
-- Align/organize internally and among different government entities who may need to be involved in particular projects and the permitting process. This alignment should happen from the outset of a project or permitting process to identify ways to streamline permit requirements without compromising the quality or integrity of the process or outputs.

Mining industry could:
-- Engage with permitting agencies early regarding all aspects of the proposed project, including by offering ideas for how to streamline the permitting process while still delivering the necessary inputs.
-- Ensure there is regular and meaningful communication with government agencies

CAFF could:
-- Share and gather information and report on good practices in environmental assessment/permitting and share broadly with Arctic States, industry and others.
-- Continue to facilitate dialogue and information sharing among industry and government agencies regarding mainstreaming of biodiversity as a way to build common understanding and establish enduring relationships.
AdviceMainstreaming Biodiversity in Arctic Mining Challenges and Proposed Solutions2019https://caff.is/mainstreamingMainstreaming
Advice to address Key Finding D:

Government agencies could:
-- Agree to participate in collaborative processes to identify and use common indicators that capture the cultural, social, and economic impacts of mining.
-- Provide data to a common repository where data could be available to be shared.

Mining industry could:
-- Agree to participate in collaborative processes to identify and use common indicators that capture the cultural, social, and economic impacts of mining.
-- Provide data to a common repository where it could be available to be shared.

CAFF could:
-- Provide a common repository to make relevant data about the status and health of plants, animals and ecosystems in the Arctic available for other uses.
-- Work in cooperation with others to help develop common methodologies for data collection, analysis, management and reporting by the mining industry.
-- Collect and share good practices for data collection and sharing. Work to ensure data provided to the CAFF is compatible with agency-mandated data collection or other standards where appropriate.
-- Help to develop indicators that capture the relevant cultural, social and economic impacts of mining.
-- Encourage and provide assistance for national and industry adoption of CAFF monitoring plans and indicators as minimum standards for the Arctic.
-- Help to develop relevant/common questions that could be asked of mining activities across the Arctic.
-- Initiate a pilot project(s) that could incorporate elements of data collection and sharing.
-- Create an expert group to address data quality and sharing, to consider how groups can work together and how TK might be equitably utilized with a focus on the engagement of TK holders.
-- Optimize use of information by ensuring that CAFF data initiatives take into account ongoing mining industry data needs, activities and approaches so that they are clearly defined.
AdviceMainstreaming Biodiversity in Arctic Mining Challenges and Proposed Solutions2019https://caff.is/mainstreamingMainstreaming
Advice to address Key Finding E:

Government agencies could:
-- Ensure that TK is considered as part of data collection needs and other relevant permitting requirements for Arctic mines.
-- Facilitate and engage early in co-production processes where TK is valued and used.

Mining industry could:
-- Engage early in co-production processes where TK is valued and used.
-- Share examples of where industry has engaged with TK holders in a meaningful way and collaborate in developing good practices that can work effectively for all
involved

CAFF could:
-- Engage early in co-production processes where TK is valued and used.
-- Help facilitate meaningful utilization and understanding of TK at multiple levels (e.g. local, national and international) through guidance from the Permanent Participants.
-- Continue work with Permanent Participants to develop good practices on how to implement coproduction of knowledge approaches to planning and decision-making (e.g., publish and share with the mining industry the approach to the co-production of knowledge outlined in the Arctic Coastal Biodiversity Monitoring Plan)
AdviceMainstreaming Biodiversity in Arctic Mining Challenges and Proposed Solutions2019https://caff.is/mainstreamingMainstreaming
Advice to address Key Finding F:

Government agencies could:
-- Facilitate access to land (e.g., assist with agreements to access and ensure long-term protection of compensation sites).
-- Develop legal and administrative provisions that allow companies to create compensation areas, ensuring their long-term conservation.
-- Provide guidelines for monitoring of the effects of the compensation measures carried out and provide data infrastructure to publicly disclose the results to establish a growing knowledge base and create confidence in compensation and trust between the various stakeholders.
-- Collaborate with CAFF on developing products described in the “CAFF could” subsections of this report.

Mining industry could:
-- Adhere to rigorous scientific standards when designing and implementing compensation measures and present expected results openly and realistically (Box 10).
-- Publicly disclose the design and implementation as well as the monitoring results of compensation actions carried out. This will establish a growing knowledge base and create confidence in compensation and trust between the various stakeholders.
-- Collaborate with CAFF on developing products described in the “CAFF could” subsection.

CAFF could:
-- Work with mining and other industries and sectors, government agencies and interested stakeholders to evaluate existing and emerging ecological compensation practices and programs and their usefulness in Arctic situations.
-- Evaluate systems of measurement and monitoring (e.g., what values should be measured, how should they be measured and when, and how should achieved
compensation values such as compensation credits be compared to impacts levels).
-- Evaluate existing legislation and guidelines (e.g., what can be done to encourage good ecological compensation practices).
-- Consider guidelines and good practices to assist in conserving and increasing biodiversity and ecosystem services through compensation measures.
AdviceMainstreaming Biodiversity in Arctic Mining Challenges and Proposed Solutions2019https://caff.is/mainstreamingMainstreaming
1. Document Indigenous wetland resource use to allow management authorities to make decisions that respect and accommodate Indigenous resource use by ensuring that subsistence activities are not unnecessarily impeded by management actions. Information may be collected on subsistence species, types of subsistence practices, levels of reliance, and legal access.AdviceArctic Wetlands and Indigenous Peoples Study2019https://www.caff.is/assessment-series/all-assessment-documents/518-arctic-wetlands-and-indigenous-peoples-studyWetlands
2. Develop protected area participation plans to specify cooperative objectives, participating entities, and terms of evaluation so that management authorities can continue to engage Indigenous Peoples when experiencing turn-over.AdviceArctic Wetlands and Indigenous Peoples Study2019https://www.caff.is/assessment-series/all-assessment-documents/518-arctic-wetlands-and-indigenous-peoples-studyWetlands
3. Broaden wetland research priorities to further the goals of biodiversity conservation and Arctic food security by (1) conducting research with Indigenous knowledge holders on wetland ecosystems, (2) examining the intersection of wetland biodiversity and Arctic
food security, and (3) prioritizing species of both conservation and subsistence interest.
AdviceArctic Wetlands and Indigenous Peoples Study2019https://www.caff.is/assessment-series/all-assessment-documents/518-arctic-wetlands-and-indigenous-peoples-studyWetlands
4. Support community-based wetlands monitoring to help researchers and managers partner with Indigenous knowledge holders, identify ecosystem services, monitor for rapid environmental change, support year round sampling, support collection of current
and historic observational information, and reinforce results from scientific studies.
AdviceArctic Wetlands and Indigenous Peoples Study2019https://www.caff.is/assessment-series/all-assessment-documents/518-arctic-wetlands-and-indigenous-peoples-studyWetlands
5. Connect beyond wetlands so as to explore the interactions between and beyond inland and coastal wetlands and examine opportunities between CAFF projects such as RMAWI, the Salmon Peoples of the Arctic, the Seabird Working Group, and the Arctic
Migratory Bird Initiative to further facilitate research on Indigenous relationships with Arctic biodiversity.
AdviceArctic Wetlands and Indigenous Peoples Study2019https://www.caff.is/assessment-series/all-assessment-documents/518-arctic-wetlands-and-indigenous-peoples-studyWetlands
6. Foster engagement in wetlands management productively by (1) approaching Indigenous participation as an opportunity, (2) seeking to build partnerships with Indigenous governments, organizations, and communities, (3) engaging Indigenous leadership and communities at the beginning of the process, and (4) welcoming elders to participate while actively recruiting Indigenous youth to contribute to management and conservation decisions.AdviceArctic Wetlands and Indigenous Peoples Study2019https://www.caff.is/assessment-series/all-assessment-documents/518-arctic-wetlands-and-indigenous-peoples-studyWetlands
National monitoring programs should continue for seabird species that may not be on the circumpolar priority list identified in the CBird monitoring plan, but which are already monitored as part of national efforts planned or underway in some countries.AdviceCircumpolar Seabird Monitoring Plan2020https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planCbird, CBMP
Each country should consider the list of Prioritized Circumpolar seabird species in the circumpolar Seabird Monitoring Plan to be Monitored, and seek to adjust their monitoring activities accordingly AdviceCircumpolar Seabird Monitoring Plan2020https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planCbird, CBMP
Develop a standardized circumpolar seabird colony registry format to help understand the status and trends of seabirds at the scale of the Arctic and to enhance the comparability of results.AdviceCircumpolar Seabird Monitoring Plan2020https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planCbird, CBMP
Compile and analyse Arctic seabird colony data, including trend data, every 10 years to help understand the status and trends of seabirds at the scale of the Arctic and to enhance the comparability of results.AdviceCircumpolar Seabird Monitoring Plan2020https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planCbird, CBMP
Each country establish a colony registry, which can then be linked to the existing Circumpolar Seabird Colony Registry.AdviceCircumpolar Seabird Monitoring Plan2020https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planCbird, CBMP
Harvest: Populations in countries and areas without seabird harvests could be used in comparison with hunted populations and each Country will determine how to use harvest data, as harvest varies greatly among the countriesAdviceCircumpolar Seabird Monitoring Plan2020https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planCbird, CBMP
National endangered species lists should be updated by each country’s representative and reported on every five years.AdviceCircumpolar Seabird Monitoring Plan2020https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planCbird, CBMP
1. Methods to monitor plastic pollution in seabirds: standardized methods should be used where possible to make data comparable across spatially and temporally. AdviceDeveloping a program to monitor plastic pollution in seabirds in the pan-Arctic region2020[Awaiting layout]AMBI, Cbird
2. Monitoring temporal trends in plastic ingestion: The northern fulmar, thick-billed murre and black-legged kittiwake should be monitored for temporal trends in plastic pollution ingestion.AdviceDeveloping a program to monitor plastic pollution in seabirds in the pan-Arctic region2020[Awaiting layout]AMBI, Cbird
3. Monitoring temporal trends in plastic ingestion: The northern fulmar, thick-billed murre and black-legged kittiwake should be monitored for temporal trends in plastic pollution ingestion.AdviceDeveloping a program to monitor plastic pollution in seabirds in the pan-Arctic region2020[Awaiting layout]AMBI, Cbird
4. Monitoring nest incorporation and entanglement: Black-legged kittiwake and northern gannet (Morus bassanus) nests should be monitored for nest incorporation of and entanglement in plastic pollution.AdviceDeveloping a program to monitor plastic pollution in seabirds in the pan-Arctic region2020[Awaiting layout]AMBI, Cbird
5. Monitoring microplastics and plastic-associated contaminants: Northern fulmars, thick-billed murres, black-legged kittiwakes and common eiders should be monitored for microplastics and plastic-associated contaminants.AdviceDeveloping a program to monitor plastic pollution in seabirds in the pan-Arctic region2020[Awaiting layout]AMBI, Cbird
6. Monitoring point sources of plastic pollution: Glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus), great skua (Stercorarius skua) and other gull species that feed at landfills and other urban or rural sites, pellets/regurgitations should be monitored for plastic pollution near point sources to track local trends in plastic pollution.AdviceDeveloping a program to monitor plastic pollution in seabirds in the pan-Arctic region2020[Awaiting layout]AMBI, Cbird
Develop a TEEB Arctic study, or set of studies, based on two to five policy areas; and a number of additional options, some of which address fundamental issues and challenges to the application of the TEEB approach in the Arctic context e.g. Expansion of marine oil and gas activities and marine shipping; and Development activity in terrestrial ecosystems, with a focus on mineral exploration and development, and cumulative effectsAdviceThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Options for improving capacity to understand Arctic ecosystem services and their values, and to apply this knowledge to policy:

1.1. Raise awareness of the roles and value of ecosystem services among Arctic communities with the aim of empowering communities, grass roots organizations and local administrations for better discussions/negotiations with sub-national/federal governments and corporations on policy related to Arctic development.
AdviceThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Options for improving capacity to understand Arctic ecosystem services and their values, and to apply this knowledge to policy:

1.2. Through collaborative processes, raise awareness of the ways that Arctic Indigenous Peoples value nature. For example, facilitate discussions between Indigenous Peoples and economists, aimed at informing ways to accommodate indigenous values in economic policies and practices.
AdviceThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Options for improving capacity to understand Arctic ecosystem services and their values, and to apply this knowledge to policy:

1.3. Make the role of natural capital and ecosystem services explicit in relation to adaptation and adaptive capacity. This is best done through bringing results from this scoping study into, and working in collaboration with, Arctic Council initiatives, for example, by:

a) considering adaptation options for policy makers that include the non-monetary and economic aspects of biodiversity, through the Adaptation Actions for a Changing Arctic (AACA); and
b) creating resilience indicators that would encompass ecosystem processes (building on the human development indicators) through the Arctic Resilience Report.
AdviceThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Options for improving capacity to understand Arctic ecosystem services and their values, and to apply this knowledge to policy:

1.4. Make visible (in economies) the wider value of Arctic biodiversity conservation and sustainable biodiversity use schemes and identify financing opportunities for such schemes that are based on recognizing ecosystem services.
AdviceThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Options for improving capacity to understand Arctic ecosystem services and their values, and to apply this knowledge to policy:

1.5. Apply economic analysis with the goal of :

a) accommodating the multiple value systems underpinning mixed and livelihood economies in the Arctic, such as reindeer herding and community economies based, or partly based, on subsistence hunting, fishing and gathering;
b) capturing Arctic social and ecological resilience in economic information and valuation; and
c) facilitating investment in the insurance value of Arctic natural capital.
AdviceThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Options for actions to address knowledge gaps related to Arctic ecosystem services:

2.1. Complete and maintain the Arctic Ecosystem Services Inventory. A draft ecosystem services inventory was prepared as part of the scoping study (see Ecosystem services section above). The inventory is a start on a structured and synthesized literature review of Arctic ecosystem services, the ecosystems they are derived from, their associated benefits, status, trends, threats, uncertainty, knowledge gaps, and what work has been done on valuation. To be a useful source of synthesized information, and a basis for further information tools, the inventory requires further work. The inventory could:

a) be a ready resource for information and overviews of available information on ecosystem services and what is known about them in relation to beneficiaries, threats, trends and valuation, both to raise awareness and to provide an entry point for policy-related assessment work;
b) serve as a metadata centre and service through CAFF’s Arctic Biodiversity Data Service; and
c) provide input to research and monitoring plans and agendas, and potentially also to industry monitoring and research planning
AdviceThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Options for actions to address knowledge gaps related to Arctic ecosystem services:

2.2. Take steps to capture or present new research results in ways that make them useful to ecosystem-services-based policy development. This could be awareness raising through research meetings of the need to make this connection, increased expert networking, such as through a community of practice on ecosystem services, and/or through changes to funding mechanisms for research.
AdviceThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Options for actions to address knowledge gaps related to Arctic ecosystem services:

2.3. Clearly identify knowledge gaps (both at the broad underpinning and methodological scale, and for specific geographic scales) and develop mechanisms to bring them into discussion of research agendas.
AdviceThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Options for actions to address knowledge gaps related to Arctic ecosystem services:

2.4. Facilitate and coordinate monitoring of the social and economic importance of ecosystems (through the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program).
AdviceThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Options for actions to address knowledge gaps related to Arctic ecosystem services:

3.1. Analyse linkages over scale, time and actors that affect when, where and to whom the costs and benefits of industrial development in the Arctic on biodiversity and ecosystems occur, considering also current and future use and spatial subsidies, to demonstrate the value and help frame the distributive impacts of decisions.
AdviceThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Options for actions to address knowledge gaps related to Arctic ecosystem services:

3.2. Prepare ecosystem services inventories with regular status reporting. Include interdisciplinary valuation of ecosystem services at the level of LMEs and national scales, but also initiate a regular review and assessment process at the pan-Arctic scale. Review and assessment would be in collaboration with existing Arctic Council processes, including the framework for assessment of biodiversity status and trends established through the CBMP.
AdviceThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Options for actions to address knowledge gaps related to Arctic ecosystem services:

3.3. Develop indicators to help describe the status of Arctic biodiversity and ecosystems. Include indicators that convey the proximity to potential thresholds or tipping points and attach confidence metrics to all indicators reflecting the level of knowledge and understanding. Development of such indicators needs to be done through co-production of knowledge based on a collaboration of Traditional Knowledge holders and scientists. (Indicator development is underway through the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program.)
AdviceThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Options for actions to address knowledge gaps related to Arctic ecosystem services:

3.4. Develop resilience indicators that make explicit the role of natural capital and ecosystem services in building of adaptive capacity. These would have similar use for policy making but be more encompassing of ecosystem processes than human development indicators.
AdviceThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Options for actions to address knowledge gaps related to Arctic ecosystem services:

3.5. Develop and test tools to evaluate Arctic ecosystem services in local and sub-national EBM, marine spatial planning, land-use planning and management, and in co-management schemes where they can directly contribute to co-producing knowledge and adaptive governance.
AdviceThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for the Arctic: A Scoping Study 2015https://caff.is/assessment-series/324-the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-the-arctic-a-scoping-study/downloadEcosystem services
Rec. 1 Actively support international efforts addressing climate change, both reducing stressors and implementing adaptation measures, as an urgent matter. Of specific importance are efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to reduce emissions of black carbon, methane and tropospheric ozone precursors.RecommendationArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABA
Rec 2. Incorporate resilience and adaptation of biodiversity to climate change into plans for development in the Arctic.RecommendationArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABA
Rec 3. Require the incorporation of biodiversity objectives and provisions into all Arctic Council work and encourage the same for on-going and future international standards, agreements, plans, operations and/or other tools specific to development in the Arctic. This should include, but not be restricted to, oil and gas development, shipping, fishing, tourism and mining.RecommendationArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABA
Rec.4 Require the incorporation of biodiversity objectives and provisions into all Arctic Council work and encourage the same for on-going and future international standards, agreements, plans, operations and/or other tools specific to development in the Arctic. This should include, but not be restricted to, oil and gas development, shipping, fishing, tourism and mining.RecommendationArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABA
Rec.5 Advance the protection of large areas of ecologically important marine, terrestrial and freshwater habitats, taking into account ecological resilience in a changing climate.

a. Build upon existing and on-going domestic and international processes to complete the identification of ecologically and biologically important marine areas and implement appropriate measures for their conservation.
b. Build upon existing networks of terrestrial protected areas, filling geographic gaps, including underrepresented areas, rare or unique habitats, particularly productive areas such as large river deltas, biodiversity hotspots, and areas with large aggregations of animals such as bird breeding colonies, seal whelping areas and caribou calving grounds.
c. Promote the active involvement of indigenous peoples in the management and sustainable use of
protected areas.
RecommendationArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABA
Rec. 6 Develop guidelines and implement appropriate spatial and temporal measures where necessary to reduce human disturbance to areas critical for sensitive life stages of Arctic species that are outside protected areas, for example along transportation corridors. Such areas include calving grounds, den sites, feeding grounds, migration routes and moulting areas. This also means safeguarding important habitats such as wetlands and polynyas.RecommendationArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABA
7. Develop and implement mechanisms that best safeguard Arctic biodiversity under changing environmental conditions, such as loss of sea ice, glaciers and permafrost.

a. Safeguard areas in the northern parts of the Arctic where high Arctic species have a relatively greater chance to survive for climatic or geographical reasons, such as certain islands and mountainous areas, which can act as a refuge for unique biodiversity.
b. Maintain functional connectivity within and between protected areas in order to protect ecosystem resilience and facilitate adaptation to climate change.
RecommendationArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABA
Rec. 8 Reduce stressors on migratory species range-wide, including habitat degradation and overharvesting on wintering and staging areas and along flyways and other migration routes.

a. Pursue or strengthen formal migratory bird cooperation agreements and other specific actions on a flyway level between Arctic and non-Arctic states with first priority given to the East Asian flyway.
b. Collaborate with relevant international commissions, conventions, networks and other organizations sharing an interest in the conservation of Arctic migratory species to identify and implement appropriate conservation actions.
c. Develop and implement joint management and recovery plans for threatened species with relevant non-Arctic states and entities.
d. Identify and advance the conservation of key wintering and staging habitats for migratory birds, particularly wetlands.
RecommendationArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABA
Rec.9 Reduce the threat of invasive alien/non-native species to the Arctic by developing and implementing common measures for early detection and reporting, identifying and blocking pathways of introduction, and sharing best practices and techniques for monitoring, eradication and control. This includes supporting international efforts currently underway, for example those of the International Maritime Organization to effectively treat ballast water to clean and treat ship hulls and drilling rigs.RecommendationArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABA
Rec.9 Promote the sustainable management of the Arctic’s living resources and their habitat. a. Improve circumpolar cooperation in data gathering and assessment of populations and harvest and in the development of improved harvest methods, planning, and management. This includes improving the use and integration of traditional ecological knowledge and science in managing harvests and in improving the development and use of community-based monitoring as an important information source.

b. Develop pan-Arctic conservation and management plans for shared species that are, or will potentially be, harvested or commercially exploited that incorporate common monitoring objectives, population assessments, harvesting regimes, guidelines for best practices in harvest methodology and consider maintenance of genetic viability and adaptation to climate change as guiding principles.
c. Support efforts to plan and manage commercial fisheries in international waters under common international objectives that ensure long-term sustainability of species and ecosystems. Encourage precautionary, science-based management of fisheries in areas beyond national jurisdiction in accordance with international law to ensure the long-term sustainability of species and ecosystems.
d. Support efforts to develop, improve and employ fishing technologies and practices that reduce bycatch of marine mammals, seabirds and non-target fish and avoid significant adverse impact to the seabed.
e. Develop and implement, in cooperation with reindeer herders, management plans that ensure the sustainability of reindeer herding and the quality of habitat for grazing and calving.
RecommendationArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABA
Rec. 11 Reduce the threat of pollutants to Arctic biodiversity.

a. Support and enhance international efforts and cooperation to identify, assess and reduce existing and emerging harmful contaminants.
b. Support the development of appropriate prevention and clean up measures and technologies that are responsive to oil spills in the Arctic, especially in ice-filled waters, such that they are ready for implementation in advance of major oil and gas developments.
c. Encourage local and national action to implement best practices for local wastes, enhance efforts to clean-up legacy contaminated sites and include contaminant reduction and reclamation plans in development projects.
RecommendationArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABA
Rec. 12 Evaluate the range of services provided by Arctic biodiversity in order to determine the costs associated with biodiversity loss and the value of effective conservation in order to assess change and support improved decision making.RecommendationArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABA
Rec.13 Increase and focus inventory, long-term monitoring and research efforts to address key gaps in scientific knowledge identified in this assessment to better facilitate the development and implementation of conservation and management strategies. Areas of particular concern identified through the ABA include components critical to ecosystem functions including important characteristics of invertebrates, microbes, parasites and pathogens.RecommendationArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABA
Rec.14 Recognize the value of traditional ecological knowledge and work to further integrate it into the assessment, planning and management of Arctic biodiversity. This includes involving Arctic peoples and their knowledge in the survey, monitoring and analysis of Arctic biodiversity.RecommendationArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABA
Rec. 15 Promote public training, education and community-based monitoring, where appropriate, as integral elements in conservation and management.RecommendationArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABA
Rec. 16 Research and monitor individual and cumulative effects of stressors and drivers of relevance to biodiversity, with a focus on stressors that are expected to have rapid and significant impacts and issues where knowledge is lacking. This should include, but not be limited to, modelling potential future species range changes as a result of these stressors; developing knowledge of and identifying tipping points, thresholds and cumulative effects for Arctic biodiversity; and developing robust quantitative indicators for stressors through the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program.RecommendationArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABA
Rec.17 Develop communication and outreach tools and methodologies to better convey the importance and value of Arctic biodiversity and the changes it is undergoing.RecommendationArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABA
1: Arctic biodiversity is being degraded, but decisive action taken now can help sustain vast, relatively undisturbed ecosystems of tundra, mountains, fresh water and seas and the valuable services they provide.Key FindingArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABA
2: Climate change is by far the most serious threat to Arctic biodiversity and exacerbates all other threats.Key FindingArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABA
3: Many Arctic migratory species are threatened by overharvest and habitat alteration outside the Arctic, especially birds along the East Asian flyway.Key FindingArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABA
4: Disturbance and habitat degradation can diminish Arctic biodiversity and the opportunities for Arctic residents and visitors to enjoy the benefits of ecosystem services.Key FindingArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABA
5: Pollution from both long-range transport and local sources threatens the health of Arctic species and ecosystems.Key FindingArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABA
6: There are currently few invasive alien species in the Arctic, but more are expected with climate change and increased human activity.Key FindingArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABA
7: Overharvest was historically the primary human impact on many Arctic species, but sound management has successfully addressed this problem in most, but not all, cases.Key FindingArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABA
8: Current knowledge of many Arctic species, ecosystems and their stressors is fragmentary, making detection and assessment of trends and their implications difficult for many aspects of Arctic biodiversity.Key FindingArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABA
9: The challenges facing Arctic biodiversity are interconnected, requiring comprehensive solutions and international cooperation.Key FindingArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABA
1.2. Mainstream biodiversity into the climate change agenda, including adaptation and mitigation, through outreach.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.1
2.1. Prepare a reference guide for resource managers on sea-ice-associated biodiversity in times of rapid change (Life linked to ice).ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.2
2.4. Ensure accessibility of science results relevant to maintaining and increasing resilience of biodiversity to climate change through the ABDS and outreach.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.2
2.5. Follow-up on the recommendations of the Life linked to Ice and related research.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.2
3.1. Provide information (including traditional knowledge) to Arctic Council initiatives that include, or are developing, an ecosystem approach including the principles for incorporation of biodiversity (Action 4.3).ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.3
3.3. Follow-up to the Ecosystem-Based Management Expert Group work on advancing ecosystem based management in the work of the Arctic Council.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.3
4.1. Strengthen and develop new strategic partnerships, particularly with industry, to seek innovative solutions and expand responsibility for taking care of biodiversity.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.4
4.2. Analyse the relationship between CAFF activities and international biodiversity objectives from relevant multilateral environmental agreements as a starting point for improved cooperation.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.4
4.3. Develop a set of biodiversity principles for the Arctic Council, Observers, and stakeholders on incorporating biodiversity objectives and safeguards into their work, apply these principles to the activities of Arctic Council Working Groups and other Subsidiary Bodies, and evaluate the extent to which these activities respond to the ABA recommendations.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.4
4.4. Develop, as needed, binding and/or voluntary agreements/standards that work towards the harmonization of industry-specific and cross-industry standards related to the conservation and/or sustainable use of biodiversity. This should consider
how to encourage the incorporation of biodiversity as a fundamental component of environmental and risk assessment work.
ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.4
4.5. Provide information, expertise, and recommendations on conservation of Arctic ecosystems to policymakersActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.4
4.7. Make monitoring and research results on species, including those relevant to maintaining and increasing resilience of biodiversity to climate change, accessible to all stakeholders, through the ABDS.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.4
4.8. Strengthen collaboration with industry in Arctic biodiversity monitoringActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.4
5.1. Provide input and assist with international processes underway to complete the identification of ecologically and biologically important Arctic areas and promote measures for their conservation as appropriate.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.5.a
5.2. Develop and follow-up on a framework for a Pan-Arctic Network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) that sets out a common vision for regional cooperation in MPA network development and management.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.5.b
5.3. Analyse existing Arctic protected areas data to identify gaps and priorities, including identification of the most climate-change resilient Arctic areas, connectivity gaps, and missing buffer zones, making use of new information and new analytical tools.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.5.b
5.4. Develop guidelines for including Arctic indigenous and community values into protected areas planning and management, including exploring how best to promote and facilitate “multiple values” protected areas -- areas conserved and cooperatively managed based on ecological values and traditional and local knowledge.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.5.c
5.5. Analyse the results of ICC’s review of global protected areas schemes that promote indigenous management practices, strong co-management schemes and support indigenous food security for consideration by CAFF.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.5.c
6.1. Provide technical information, including mapping areas of high species abundance, unique Arctic diversity and those important for sensitive life stages, at a scale appropriate for use in planning.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.6
6.2. Develop, where needed, guidelines or other tools, for safeguarding sensitive areas for biodiversity (outside protected areas) that are vulnerable to human activity and/or contribute to international processes developing such guidelines, including potential refugia that will maintain multi-year ice.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.6
7.1. Develop options for safeguarding potential marine and terrestrial refuge areas, including areas that will maintain multi-year ice (related to AMSA IID).ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.7.a
7.2. Assess options and recommend most effective methods to manage connectivity, in light of climate change, including identification of sub-populations, species and regions for which connectivity is most critical (including for increasing genetic resilience).ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.7.b
7.3. Identify management actions that will enhance resilience of species in adapting to rapid change.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.7.b
8.1. Establish an Arctic Migratory Bird Initiative (AMBI) to cooperate on the conservation of migratory Arctic birds and prepare collaborative flyway based work plans.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.8.d
8.2. Broker commitments by non-Arctic countries to safeguarding important Arctic migratory bird habitats outside the Arctic, as part of the AMBI.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.8.d
8.3. Identify species that could benefit from, but are not covered by, range-wide adaptive management strategies and follow-up as appropriateActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.8.c
8.4. Inventory on-going seabird projects and develop a common reporting template for all seabird conservation strategies.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.8.c
8.5. Continue implementation of existing species conservation strategies and develop others as appropriate (Black-legged Kittiwakes, caribou).ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.8.c
8.6. Investigate the impact of shipping and off-shore development on seabirds.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.8.c
9.1. Develop a strategy for the prevention and management of invasive species across the Arctic, including the identification and mitigation of pathways of introduction invasions. Include involvement of indigenous observing networks, which include invasive and new
species reporting, to assist with early detection.
ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.9
9.2. Incorporate common protocols for early detection and reporting of non-native invasive species in the Arctic into CBMP monitoring plans.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.9
10.1. Improve data and assessments on populations, harvest and harvest management, including both traditional knowledge and science, as foundation for harvest management (e.g., Arctic Geese).ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.10.a
10.2. Further develop community-based monitoring as a tool to aid in tracking populations, harvest and harvest management.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.10.a
10.3. Develop range-wide adaptive management strategies for those harvested species identified under Action 8.3.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.10.b
10.4. Provide biodiversity and ecosystem information to the proposed US Chairmanship priority of developing a Regional Seas Program for the Arctic Ocean.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.10.c
10.5. Update CAFF reports on incidental take of seabirds in commercial fisheries in the Arctic.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.10.d
12.1. Prepare a scoping report on the potential for applying the TEEB (The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity) approach to evaluate the benefits people receive from Arctic biodiversity.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.12
12.2. Evaluate ecosystem services.

a. Complete the TEEB scoping study.
b. Follow-up as appropriate on valuation of ecosystem services.
ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.12
12.3. Enhance the use of both existing traditional and local knowledge and community-based monitoring approaches in the work of the Arctic Council.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.12
13.1. Share research gaps and priorities identified in the ABA with the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC) third International Conference on Arctic Research Planning to inform their research priorities.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.13
13.2. Complete the Arctic coastal biodiversity monitoring plan and begin implementation.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.13
13.3. Address monitoring and research gaps in scientific knowledge identified as priorities in the ABA and Arctic Biodiversity Congress, including components critical to ecosystem functions including invertebrates, microbes, parasites and pathogensActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.13
13.4. Report on changes in Arctic species, ecosystems, and the effects of stressors through state of Arctic biodiversity reports.

a. Marine species and ecosystems
b. Terrestrial species and ecosystems
c. Freshwater species and ecosystems
d. Coastal species and ecosystems
ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.13
13.5. Explore development of a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for the Arctic.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.13
13.6. Develop and update taxonomic lists where there is a gap

a. Red List for Arctic Vascular Plants
b. Moss check list
ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.13
13.7. Complete the circumpolar boreal vegetation map.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.13
13.8. Prepare a circumpolar seabird monitoring plan.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.13
14.2. Complete traditional knowledge component of the ABA by preparing a report on traditional knowledge on biodiversity change in the North American Arctic.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.14
14.3. Prepare a report on lessons learned on the inclusion of traditional knowledge in CAFF’s activities.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.14
14.4. Improve understanding of biodiversity change

a. Explore the potential of developing a case study centred on walrus to demonstrate the use of an Inuit food security lens and ecosystem approach. The project would focus on walrus and bring together representatives of AMAP, SDWG, CAFF and
Traditional Knowledge holders to look at indicators that cross over social and natural systems, paints a holistic picture and brings together discussion on biotic and abiotic systems.
b. Explore the development of the Salmon Peoples project.
ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.14
14.5. Develop the community observation network for adaptation and security (CONAS) to increase the contribution of community-based monitoring and knowledge from Arctic peoples to existing knowledgeActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.14
14.7. Seek ways to enhance the integration of traditional and local knowledge, including follow-up to the recommendations from the Iqaluit Declaration (Action 14.1), and encourage co-production of knowledge methodologies.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.14
15.1. Update CAFF’s strategy and guidelines for community-based monitoring, including tools and exploration of how to better integrate this type of monitoring witActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.15
15.2. Increase engagement of youth and early career scientists in the activities of CAFF to train the next generation of conservation leaders.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.15
16.1. Analyse the state of knowledge and data on cumulative effects and identify priorities, adding the biotic parameters to abiotic work.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.16
16.2. Consider impacts of stressors and drivers within the scheduled reviews of the CBMP ecosystem monitoring plans.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.16
16.3. Continue to develop and report on key robust indicators of Arctic biodiversity, in particular ones that can be used to track and understand cumulative effects.

a. Update the Arctic Biodiversity Trends 2010; selected indicators of change report
b. Land cover Change Index
c. Protected areas using data from CAFF and PAME
d. Arctic Migratory Bird Index
e. Invasive species
ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.16
16.4 Improve predictive capacity through increased observations, research, scenarios and models as tools for understanding of processes governing changes in the Arctic and influencing future decisions.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.16
16.7. Assess the effects on marine mammals of ship noise, disturbance and strikes in Arctic marine waters and, where needed, develop and mitigation strategies (AMSA IIG)ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.16
16.8. Based on current work by the CircumArctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment (CARMA) Network, develop an example of an ecosystem approach to cumulative effects from a keystone species’ perspective, integrating, over the species annual range,
effects from climate change, infrastructure and human activity. The emphasis is on: 1) the assessment framework, 2) standardized monitoring protocols, 3) model-based assessment tools, and 4) application to ecosystem-based management and sensitive
habitat protection and management.
ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.16
17.1. Implement CAFF’s communications strategy and update as needed.ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.17
17.2. Develop tools to raise awareness of Arctic biodiversity, and the multiple challenges it faces, for example “Through the Lens” photography competition, and create publications, articles, films, social media, media campaigns and educational kitsActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.17
17.3. Provide status and trend information to international fora and national agencies to promote the importance of Arctic biodiversity and to facilitate reporting through multilateral environmental agreements and other international processes

a. Reframe the results of the ABA as a regional biodiversity outlook for the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and as a contribution to the biodiversity and ecosystem services regional reports for the Americas and Europe and Central Asia being
prepared for Intergovernmental Panel on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services.
b. Report to the CBD on progress of the Arctic region towards achievement of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets
ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.17
17.4. Develop educational materials based on the ABA (in several languages).

a. Pilot: educational toolkit on Arctic ecology for children ages 9-11.
ActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABARec.17
17.5 Develop and implement outreach products to communicate the outcomes of this planActionArctic Biodiversity Assessment2013http://www.caff.is/assessment-series/arctic-biodiversity-assessment/229-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-report-for-policy-makers-english ABA
Share challenges and suggested solutions regarding mainstreaming biodiversity in Arctic mining, starting with this report to the Arctic Council and continuing on with subsequent outreach opportunities.Action in the report: Mainstreaming Biodiversity in Arctic Mining Challenges and Proposed Solutions2019https://caff.is/mainstreamingMainstreaming To address Challenges A-G (see Key Findings tab)
Continue to build relationships with the Arctic mining industry by convening dialogues and participating in cross-sector engagement opportunities; including by participating in pre-existing or external events that address similar topics where appropriate.Action in the report: Mainstreaming Biodiversity in Arctic Mining Challenges and Proposed Solutions2019https://caff.is/mainstreamingMainstreaming To address Challenges A-G (see Key Findings tab)
Develop a communication and outreach effort based on good practice stories to distribute among the Arctic mining industry, permitting agencies, and Indigenous and other communities impacted by miningAction in the report: Mainstreaming Biodiversity in Arctic Mining Challenges and Proposed Solutions2019https://caff.is/mainstreamingMainstreaming To address Challenges A-G (see Key Findings tab)
Work with mining and other industries and sectors, government agencies, and interested stakeholders to evaluate existing and emerging ecological compensation practices and programs and their usefulness in Arctic situations.Action in the report: Mainstreaming Biodiversity in Arctic Mining Challenges and Proposed Solutions2019https://caff.is/mainstreamingMainstreaming To address Challenges A-G (see Key Findings tab)
Work with Permanent Participants and industry to facilitate a discussion and develop and share good practices for meaningfully engaging communities, including utilizing TK, throughout the entire mining process in the Arctic.Action in the report: Mainstreaming Biodiversity in Arctic Mining Challenges and Proposed Solutions2019https://caff.is/mainstreamingMainstreaming To address Challenges A-G (see Key Findings tab)
Consistently, and as relevant, share Arctic Council products and information to the mining industry as soon as they are available, e.g., Good Practices for Environmental Impact Assessment and Meaningful Engagement in the Arctic: including Good Practices Recommendations (SDWG 2019), State of the Arctic Freshwater Biodiversity Report (CAFF 2019), Arctic Coastal Biodiversity Monitoring Plan (CAFF 2019), Meaningful Engagement of Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities in Marine Activities (PAME 2019).Action in the report: Mainstreaming Biodiversity in Arctic Mining Challenges and Proposed Solutions2019https://caff.is/mainstreamingMainstreaming To address Challenges A-G (see Key Findings tab)
Develop and share good practices for biodiversity data collection, analysis and management, emphasizing collaborative partnership efforts among companies, agencies, communities, and others.Action in the report: Mainstreaming Biodiversity in Arctic Mining Challenges and Proposed Solutions2019https://caff.is/mainstreamingMainstreaming To address Challenges A-G (see Key Findings tab)
Encourage and provide assistance for national and industry adoption of CAFF monitoring plans and indicators as a model for monitoring in the Arctic.Action in the report: Mainstreaming Biodiversity in Arctic Mining Challenges and Proposed Solutions2019https://caff.is/mainstreamingMainstreaming To address Challenges A-G (see Key Findings tab)
Initiate pilot project(s) with mining company(ies) to facilitate data collection and sharing based on CAFFs monitoring plans and focal ecosystem components.Action in the report: Mainstreaming Biodiversity in Arctic Mining Challenges and Proposed Solutions2019https://caff.is/mainstreamingMainstreaming To address Challenges A-G (see Key Findings tab)
1.1.1. Regulate hunting/harvest of adults to ensure sustainable outtake, and to implement hunting/harvest moratorium for populations in decline.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 1.1
1.1.2. Reduce bycatch in hunting and accidental harvest.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 1.1
1.1.3. Monitor harvest of kittiwakes and conduct surveys to assess the impact on populationsActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 1.1
1.2.1 Support education materials and/or law enforcement efforts in support of existing regulations to prevent illegal killing.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 1.2
1.3.1. Collaborate with the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP) to study and monitor contaminants that potentially can cause mortality or reproduction problems and seek ways to reduce their adverse impactsActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 1.3
1.3.2. Improve techniques and procedures preventing oil spills at sea (operational, accidental and chronical) and/or reducing ecological consequences.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 1.3
1.3.3. Introduce ship traffic regulations in order to facilitate a shift to light fuel in sensitive areas. Encourage adoption and implementation of a ban to use heavy oil fuel in Artic waters by International Maritime Organization (IMO).ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 1.3
1.4.1 Remove non-native predators in key breeding colonies.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 1.4
1.5.1 Improve the understanding of the ecosystem effects of fisheries interactions and how to adjust maximum sustainable yields in terms of climate-induced changes in the food web that leads to insufficient food supply for adults.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 1.5
1.6.1. Establish monitoring practices to track presence of HABs in marine environments and prey used by kittiwake. Conduct tests to determine dose levels of HABs toxins that affect kittiwake behavior or health, using proxy species where applicable. Work to reduce sources of HABs, such as nearshore development or discharge.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 1.6
1.7.1. (Connected to 1.5.1.) Address how to develop sustainable commercial fisheries considering the added effects of rapid ecosystem changes due to climate change.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 1.7
1.7.2. Ensure that the management of commercial fisheries on key prey species as well as key ecosystem components is based on best available knowledge and a precautionary approach.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 1.7
1.7.3. Assess and reduce bycatch in commercial fishing activities, in possible collaboration with AMBI.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 1.7
1.8.1. Evaluate effects of detrimental human activity on kittiwakes and prepare guidelines to industry operations to minimize their impacts on kittiwakesActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 1.8
1.9.1. Monitor bird flu and other diseases and minimize their impacts.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 1.9
1.10.1. Ensure key feeding grounds and breeding sites are identified and taken into account in environmental risk assessments of the development of wind farms (on land or at sea).ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 1.10
2.1.1. Strict regulations of egg collecting; collaboration options with AMBI should be considered.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 2.1
2.2.1 Remove introduced invasive species.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 2.2
2.2.2. Perform risk analyses/assessments to identify and prioritize areas with introduced species.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 2.2
2.3.1. Identify significant risks of disturbance activities and sensitive locations.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 2.3
2.3.2. Develop guidelines (codes-of-conduct) for potentially harmful organized activities near colonies e.g. tourism, research (all fields), harvest, air- and ship traffic as well as individual activities such as kayaking, fishing etc.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 2.3
2.3.3. Introduce area restrictions for high risk activities and promote regulations in adequate formats.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 2.3
2.3.4. Improve and standardize methods for Environmental Impact Assessments.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 2.3
2.3.5. Increase the knowledge on impacts of marine installations on seabirds (noise, light, pollution etc.).ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 2.3
2.3.6. Execute spatial planning and environmental assessments taking seabird management priorities into account.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 2.3
2.3.7. Create no-conflict artificial nesting sites in locations where kittiwakes have moved into human settlements.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 2.3
2.4.1. Ensure industrial fisheries of pelagic forage fish such as capelin, herring and sandeel are not at a level that limits kittiwakes’ food supply.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 2.4
2.4.2. Increase research into the resource competition between seabird and fisheries and how this should influence quotasActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 2.4
2.5.1. Regulate fisheries in key feeding areas must be regulated (see 2.4.1.) as alteration in food availability and quality due to climate change and increasing sea-surface temperatures emphasize the importance of minimizing anthropogenic influenceActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 2.5
2.6.1. Reduce marine litter and plastics by raising public awareness, and through facilitation of environment-friendly handling of garbage etc.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 2.6
2.6.2. Reduce the risk of local oil spills close to breeding colonies by regulating nearby human activitiesActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 2.6
3.1.1. Create alternative breeding sites for kittiwakes where breeding cliffs are threatened by erosion. This might also benefit kittiwakes in terms of reduction of predation and/or human conflicts.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 3.1
3.2.1. Use tracking and population data to prevent construction of offshore structures close to breeding sites/foraging grounds/wintering sites.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 3.2
3.3.1. Prepare a summary of protected areas containing important kittiwake habitats.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 3.3
3.3.2. Evaluate the potential of ongoing tools such as the Framework for a Pan-Arctic Network of Marine Protected Areas and other mechanisms to protect habitats important to kittiwakes.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 3.3
3.3.3. Identify important kittiwake habitats on land and at sea still requiring protection and designate them under national and international systems of protected areas (e.g. Birdlife International’s Important Bird Areas or OSPAR).ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 3.3
3.3.4. Identify, evaluate and implement additional conservation mechanisms such as treaties, agreements, regulations, and policies of value. Consider also collaboration with AMBI.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 3.3
4.1.1. Systematically identify important feeding grounds throughout the year.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 4.1
4.1.2. Identify and quantify diet during breeding and non-breeding season.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 4.1
4.1.3. Conduct comprehensive, multidisciplinary studies of environmental drivers in wintering grounds (climate and food availability).ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 4.1
4.1.4. Assess the direct and indirect effects of fisheries on kittiwakes.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 4.1
4.2.1. Develop a comprehensive research agenda for each population specifying what information is most needed, how it will be used, and which countries will be involved. Relate this to the Circumpolar Seabird Monitoring Plan and evaluate if necessary.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 4.2
4.2.2. For each major kittiwake breeding population, estimate population size, productivity, adult survival rates, and identify migration routes and wintering grounds. Also investigate survival rates and distribution of the immature birds.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 4.2
4.2.3 Investigate the breeding success and population estimates for a larger proportion of the circumpolar population.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 4.2
4.2.4. Investigate the genetic structures in the different populations.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 4.2
4.2.5. Implement the Circumpolar Seabird Monitoring Plan (CBird 2015) throughout the circumpolar Arctic.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 4.2
4.3.1. Increase research efforts considering climate change and its effect on survival and reproduction rates (seawater acidification, increased water temperatures, increased frequency of storms etc.)ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 4.3
4.3.2. Increase research into the effect of diseases and parasites.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 4.3
4.3.3. Compensate climate change impact by reducing the effect of other negative driversActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 4.3
4.4.1. Finalize an overview of the location of all breeding colonies in the Arctic.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 4.4
4.4.2. Identify important areas and generate sensitivity maps around the Arctic.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 4.4
4.5.1. Investigate the magnitude and effect of predation at population level.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 4.5
4.6.1. More research is needed in order to reduce damage by kittiwake on construction and reduce conflicts with operators.ActionInternational Black-legged Kittiwake - Conservation Strategy and Action Plan 2020https://caff.is/strategies-series/526-international-black-legged-kittiwake-conservation-strategy-and-action-plan/downloadCBirdTo Address Goal 4.6
1. Improve conservation and management of shorebird sites throughout the African-Eurasian flyway 

1.1 Secure intertidal habitat of Arctic-breeding shorebirds in Bijagós Archipelago, Guinea-Bissau 
1.2 Ensure identification and documentation of key sites for shorebirds in available format as a tool for national/international sustainable site management 
 

ActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023: African Eurasian Flyway2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
2. Increase quality and quantity of population status assessment data of Arctic breeding waterbirds in the African-Eurasian Flyway

2.1 Support the implementation of the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Programme (CBMP) and the revised AEWA Guidelines on Waterbird Monitoring with respect to those Arctic-breeding waterbirds for which optimal data are still lacking, through cooperation with the African-Eurasian Waterbird Monitoring Partnership and the Wadden Sea Flyway Initiative by providing financial and/or technical support .

2.2 Support improved population delineation of Arctic-breeding waders by collating Arctic breeding wader migration data (tracking, colour-marking, geolocator, ringing data, etc.) and presenting it on the CSN tool to improve flyway delineation data.
ActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023: African Eurasian Flyway2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
3. Development and dissemination of information and awareness materials addressing priority target 

3.1 Support the development of communication products (in collaboration with flyway partners) showcasing migratory connectivity, knowledge gaps, and threats in the African-Eurasian flyway area 
ActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023: African Eurasian Flyway2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
4. Reduce bycatch of seaducks in the Baltic Sea 

4.1 Support the implementation of the AEWA Long-tailed Duck and Velvet Scoter International Single Species Action Plans with respect to the identified activities regarding bycatch under the auspices of the AEWA European Seaduck International Working Group 
ActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023: African Eurasian Flyway2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
5. Support measures under the AEWA Lesser White-fronted Goose (LWfG) International Working Group (IWG) to prevent illegal killing 

5.1 Assist the AEWA LWfG IWG with the translation and dissemination of awareness-raising and education materials in key areas for the species within the Russian Arctic amongst Indigenous and local communities 
5.2 Support the UNEP/AEWA Secretariat in engaging key Range States on a diplomatic level through Arctic Council member and observer country embassies 
ActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023: African Eurasian Flyway2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
1. Understand the expansion of white geese populations in Arctic shorebird habitat

1.1 Understand impacts of populations of white geese on other bird species in western Canada
1.2 Understand trends in the populations of white geese in Alaska and their impacts on shorebird breeding habitats
ActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023: Americas Flyway2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
2. Mitigate effects of over- abundant white geese populations on shorebird habitat

2.1 Implement management actions resulting from study of white geese impacts in Canada (undertaken as part of AMBI Phase 1)
ActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023: Americas Flyway2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
3. Ensure Traditional Knowledge is incorporated into white geese impacts research and mitigation measures

3.1 Continue to include Traditional Knowledge in future work
ActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023: Americas Flyway2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
4. Determine climate change resilient areas of shorebird habitat and promote their protection

4.1 Carry out an analysis of the resilience of shorebird wintering habitat to climate change
4.2 Promote protection of climate change resilient shorebird breeding, wintering and migration habitats
ActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023: Americas Flyway2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
5. Mitigate habitat impairment from human intrusions and disturbances

5.1 Support efforts to develop policies and legislation to ensure the sustainability of legal hunting of shorebirds in North and South America
5.2 Promote studies that assess the prevalence and impacts of plastic contamination in shorebird populations in the Arctic
5.3 Work with communities and governments to protect important sites for shorebirds
ActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023: Americas Flyway2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
6. Mitigate habitat impairment from destruction and degradation of coastal habitats and productive landscapes

6.1 Evaluate the impacts of habitat loss and degradation from agriculture, aquaculture, renewable energy production and tourism development on shorebirds and their habitats in Latin America
6.2 Ensure mitigation measures are incorporated into development decisions
6.3 Designate important sites under appropriate international conservation frameworks (e.g. Ramsar Convention, WHSRN, World Heritage)
6.4 Work with communities and governments to protect important sites
ActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023: Americas Flyway2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
7. Contribute to the implementation and development of regional flyway initiatives

7.1 Promote and support the implementation of regional strategies and flyway initiatives
7.2 Encourage/coordinate the development of an American Mid- continental Flyway strategy
ActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023: Americas Flyway2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
1. Enhance data collection and data input into habitat protection initiatives

1.1 Raise awareness and facilitate protection of at-sea areas where key marine bird habitats intersect with human activities
1.2 Support country participation in circumpolar collaborations to enhance Ivory Gull surveys and collection and synthesis of marine bird tracking data (including Ivory Gulls)
1.3 Knowledge gap analysis of circumpolar seabird tracking studies
ActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023: Circumpolar Flyway2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
2. Harvest assessments and mitigation of unsustainable harvest of Arctic birds

2.1 Work with CBird to promote dialogue with authorities for management plans to combine the knowledge of status of hunted species between countries
2.2 Assess the population-level impact of seabird harvest in relation to other stressors
2.3 Conduct/update a harvest inventory for circumpolar regions of interest
ActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023: Circumpolar Flyway2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
3. Mitigate seabird and seaduck bycatch

3.1 Initiate an overlap analysis for seabird bycatch in circumpolar region
3.2 Continue discussions about mitigation measures with fisheries partners
3.3 Support efforts to develop best practices for bycatch data collection
3.4 Finalize gill net bycatch assessment in key regions
ActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023: Circumpolar Flyway2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
4. Address environmental pollution issues

4.1 State of knowledge assessment for plastics in wildlife
4.2 Work with Arctic Council countries and Permanent Participants, PAME, and AMAP to begin to address knowledge gaps
ActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023: Circumpolar Flyway2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
5. Support the activities and priorities of the International Snowy Owl Working Group (ISOWG)

5.1 Publish a more precise global population estimate and assessment of population trends
5.2 Implement wider-scale tracking of Snowy Owls throughout their range
ActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023: Circumpolar Flyway2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
1. Identify and secure important breeding and staging habitats of key AMBI- EAAF migratory bird species in Arctic Russia and Alaska, with a focus on Spoon-billed Sandpiper, Bar-tailed Godwit, Red Knot, Dunlin, Emperor Goose and Brant Goose

1.1 (Russia): Improve conservation work on Spoon-billed Sandpiper (SBS) and other AMBI priority species in the breeding grounds
1.2 (Russia): Identify important breeding and staging areas in coastal areas of Russia for AMBI priority species, and where possible encourage and assist their nomination as EAAF Partnership Network Sites with follow-up conservation actions
1.3 (United States): Undertake bird surveys and tracking studies to improve knowledge of important breeding and staging sites for priority species in Alaska
1.4 (United States): Protect previously identified important breeding and staging areas
1.5 (Russia/United States): Share experience and methodologies for surveying shorebird distribution, monitoring population size and trends, conducting demographic studies, and managing habitats of priority species and other migratory birds
ActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023: East Asian Australasian Flyway2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
2. Secure intertidal and associated habitat for AMBI priority species at key staging and wintering sites in the EAAF

2.1 (Russia): Ensure improvement of protection of the Russian Far East coastal shorebird stopover sites
2.2 (United States): Gather better information on the abundance, distribution and habitat use of Dunlin and Bar-tailed Godwits at spring and fall staging sites in Alaska
2.3 (China): Enhance protection of Jiangsu Coast ecosystem, especially the Rudong and Dongtai areas for Spoon-billed Sandpiper and other Arctic-breeding shorebirds considering World Heritage Site Nomination requirements
2.4 (China): Enhance protection of the Luannan Coast especially Nanpu, Tangshan for Red Knot and other Arctic-breeding shorebirds
2.5 (China): Enhance protection at Yalu Jiang, Liaoning for Bar-tailed Godwit, Dunlin, Great Knot and other Arctic shorebirds
2.6 (China): Increase knowledge of key staging and wintering Arctic-breeding shorebirds sites in southern China (Guangdong, Guangxi and Fujian provinces) and improve conservation status of these sites
2.7 (Republic of Korea): Support efforts to reverse declining trends of AMBI priority species (SBS, Great Knot, Dunlin and other) and improve habitat conservation along the flyway through sharing knowledge and international cooperative projects
2.8 (Republic of Korea): Promote the importance of conserving Korea’s remaining intertidal shorebird zones for the protection of Arctic-breeding and other migratory waterbirds including the Spoon-billed Sandpiper, Great Knot, and Dunlin
2.9 (Republic of Korea/China): Encourage the Governments of China and Republic of Korea to develop measures to address Spartina to protect high ecological value sites for AMBI priority species to ensure meeting the criteria of World Heritage Site nomination
2.10 (Republic of Korea/China): Seek China and the Republic of Korea AMBI focal points to develop Resolutions of Cooperation with CAFF Secretariat to guide future cooperation
2.11 (Singapore): Encourage utilizing the ASEAN Flyway Network (ASEAN AFN) as a platform to engage ASEAN Member States to mainstream AMBI priorities to promote conservation of wetlands and migratory waterbirds. Explore the possibility of collaborating with ASEAN AFN on a key wetland site conservation program.
2.12 (Japan): Further develop dialogue to promote cooperation on the conservation of Arctic-breeding migratory birds in the EAAF with a focus on selected priority actions identified within this workplan, including conservation of AMBI priority species in Japan and in the flyway, building on existing bilateral migratory bird agreements
2.13 (India): Work with the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Bombay Natural History Society and other relevant Indian institutions to assess the status and trends of AMBI priority species and promote conservation measures
2.14 (All countries): Explore the possibilities for a collaborative pilot project on Spartina control, with CAFF’s Arctic Invasive Alien Species Action Plan International Coordinating Group (ARIAS ICG) and other partners
2.15 (Singapore): Cooperate on a satellite tracking program for key migratory waterbird species within the EAAF
2.16 (EAAFP) Cooperate with relevant governments and other partners to extend the African-Eurasian Critical Site Network Tool 2.0 (CSN2.0) to the EAAFP to develop, improve and promote the accessible inventory of nationally and internationally important coastal and inland sites for Arctic breeding waterbirds along the flyway.
ActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023: East Asian Australasian Flyway2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
3. Prevent illegal hunting and regulate unsustainable legal harvest of Arctic migratory birds along the flyway, with a focus on Spoon-billed Sandpiper, Lesser White-fronted Goose, Bar-tailed Godwit, and other priority species.
3.1 (Russia): Support development and implementation of national and regional strategies and action plans for the elimination of illegal harvest of birds in Russia.
3.2 (United States): Conduct outreach, assess the magnitude and impacts of legal subsistence harvest on priority birds in Alaska, with a focus on Emperor Goose and Bar-tailed Godwits
3.3 (China): Support development and implementation of national and regional strategies, action plans and implementation activities for the elimination of poaching of birds in China
3.4 (India): Work with the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India, Bombay Natural History Society and other Indian ministries and research institutions to promote AMBI work and address illegal hunting issues
3.5 (All countries): Engage with the EAAFP and the CMS Task Forces on Illegal Killing/ Hunting, Taking and Trade of Birds to develop implementation of actions to address this threat to migratory Arctic-breeding birds
3.6 (All countries): Work to curb the use of equipment for illegally captured birds
3.7 (All countries): Raise the profile of illegal hunting, taking and trade of migratory Arctic birds by linking it to broader forums and discussions on illegal wildlife trade, the bushmeat trade, and wildlife crime discourse in CBD, CITES and other relevant organizations
3.8 (All countries): Support an illegal hunting technical workshop to share expertise and address illegal hunting along the flyway
3.9 (All countries): Develop or support monthly mist net surveys and removal activities in key Spoon-billed Sandpiper sites, using the positive experiences in China as an example
3.10 (All countries): Initiate a research project on human dimension in bird poaching mitigation along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway considering cultural traditions and Traditional Knowledge
3.11 (USA and Russia): Work to assess legal and illegal Emperor Goose harvest in Russia and Alaska to develop a consistent Beringia-wide legal framework for the management and long-term sustainability of the species
3.12 (Russia, China, India): Prioritise conservation of Eastern and Central Asian populations of Lesser White-fronted Goose (LWFG) and reverse their declining trends including analysis of existing satellite tracking data.
ActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023: East Asian Australasian Flyway2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
4. Work with partners to increase the number and quality of population estimates of Arctic-breeding waterbirds in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway

4.1 (All countries): Work with partners such as EAAF Partnership, Wetlands International and other partners to improve population estimates for AMBI priority species by supporting collation of up-to-date information on estimates and trends
4.2 (All countries): Cooperate with partners such as the EAAF Partnership Waterbird Monitoring Task Force, Wetlands International, BirdLife International and the Global Flyway Network to strengthen monitoring of Arctic-breeding migratory waterbirds along the flyway, particularly in the Yellow Sea and Southeast Asia
ActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023: East Asian Australasian Flyway2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
5. Address other threats to Arctic migratory birds along EAAF and improve international cooperation

5.1 (All countries): Analyse and assess high-income-country development aid funding structures and opportunities to help identify how AMBI can support conservation of important priority species’ habitats, and alternative livelihoods of coastal communities where illegal hunting pressures exist
5.2 (All countries): Initiate work on evaluation of the effect of contaminants on Arctic- breeding migratory birds as factor possibly decreasing their survival and reproduction potential and estimate bio-transition of them along the flyway to the Arctic
5.3 (All countries): Promote cooperation between EAAFP’s Spoon-billed Sandpiper Task Force and AMBI in addressing Spoon-billed Sandpiper conservation activities identified in this workplan
5.4 (All countries): Create an intervention tool box to ensure resilience of Arctic- breeding migratory birds along East Asian-Australasian Flyway with the involvement of Arctic Council Observer countries as recommended by the draft AMBI crosswalk analysis under the PSI funded project
ActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023: East Asian Australasian Flyway2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
A. Improve the conservation status of Arctic birdsActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023:Overall2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
B. Ongoing implementation of the ABAActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023:Overall2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
C. Support existing conservation initiativesActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023:Overall2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
D. Increased awareness about illegal killing/huntingActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023:Overall2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
E. Increased emphasis on cross-border enforcementActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023:Overall2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
F. Increased awareness of AMBI species and issues in national legislation/activities/programsActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023:Overall2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
G. Increased diplomatic discussions of AMBI species and issuesActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023:Overall2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
H. Increased awareness of AMBI issues in international cooperative bodies, agreements and conventionsActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023:Overall2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
I. Increased awareness of specific sites of importance to AMBI speciesActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023:Overall2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
J. Increased cooperation with Arctic Council Observers (and non-Arctic Council Observer states/organizations) in Arctic-breeding migratory bird issuesActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023:Overall2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
K. Increased participation of Observer and non-Arctic states/organizations at meetings focusing on Arctic-breeding migratory bird issuesActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023:Overall2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
L. An increase in meetings held in non-Arctic countries on Arctic-breeding migratory bird issuesActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023:Overall2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
M. An increase in Ministerial and SAO involvement in Arctic-breeding migratory bird issuesActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023:Overall2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
N. An increase in equitable engagement of Arctic Indigenous Peoples ActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023:Overall2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
O. An increase in AMBI-raised and/or leveraged funding /support for migratory bird conservation and researchActionAMBI Work Plan 2019-2023:Overall2019https://caff.is/arctic-migratory-birds-initiative-ambiAMBI
Priority Action 1.1 Promote and, as needed, develop targeted communications and outreach initiatives to raise awareness of the urgent need and unique opportunity to protect the Arctic region from the adverse impacts of invasive alien species. Response to Goal 1ActionArctic Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan 2017https://www.caff.is/strategies-series/415-arctic-invasive-alien-species-strategy-and-action-planARIAS
Priority Action 1.2 Encourage Arctic States and non-Arctic States (including Arctic Council Observer States), working collaboratively with Permanent Participants, to implement effective programs for preventing the introduction and controlling the spread of invasive alien species through domestic actions and/or international agreements and relevant guidelines, such as the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments, and the IMO Guidelines for the control and management of ships’ biofouling to minimize the transfer of invasive aquatic species (Biofouling Guidelines). Response to Goal 1ActionArctic Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan 2017https://www.caff.is/strategies-series/415-arctic-invasive-alien-species-strategy-and-action-planARIAS
Priority Action 1.3 Promote and coordinate the Arctic Council’s work on invasive alien species with relevant scientific, technical, and policy-making bodies and instruments. Response to Goal 1ActionArctic Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan 2017https://www.caff.is/strategies-series/415-arctic-invasive-alien-species-strategy-and-action-planARIAS
Priority Action 2.1 Identify and assess: a) the invasive alien species and pathways that pose the greatest risk of biological invasion into, within, and out of Arctic ecosystems; b) the Arctic ecosystems, livelihoods, and cultural resources most vulnerable to biological invasion; and c) the current and projected patterns and trends of introduction and impacts of invasive alien species in the Arctic. Response to Goal 1ActionArctic Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan 2017https://www.caff.is/strategies-series/415-arctic-invasive-alien-species-strategy-and-action-planARIAS
Priority Action 2.2 Produce a series of topic-specific assessments of invasive alien species issues in the Arctic considering scientific, TLK, technical, environmental, economic, socio-cultural, legal, and institutional perspectives. Response to Goal 2ActionArctic Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan 2017https://www.caff.is/strategies-series/415-arctic-invasive-alien-species-strategy-and-action-planARIAS
Priority Action 2.3 Improve the collection of information on the occurrence and impacts of Arctic invasive alien species, taking advantage of new technologies for early detection, and integrate this information into circumpolar, regional, and community-based observing networks, monitoring programs, (in particular the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Programme), and associated information systems such as (the Arctic Biodiversity Data Service). Response to Goal 2ActionArctic Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan 2017https://www.caff.is/strategies-series/415-arctic-invasive-alien-species-strategy-and-action-planARIAS
2.4 Facilitate full, timely, and open sharing of data and other information relevant to Arctic invasive alien species prevention and management through the Arctic Biodiversity Data Service and the CAFF Web portal. Response to Goal 2ActionArctic Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan 2017https://www.caff.is/strategies-series/415-arctic-invasive-alien-species-strategy-and-action-planARIAS
Priority Action 3.1 Collaborate with industries, such as, tourism, energy, fisheries, mining, and shipping, and other stakeholders, as relevant, to develop and implement a wide range of biosecurity measures for points of entry and along priority pathways to reduce the initial transfer of species. Response to Goal 3.ActionArctic Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan 2017https://www.caff.is/strategies-series/415-arctic-invasive-alien-species-strategy-and-action-planARIAS
Priority Action 3.2 Encourage the establishment of new, or strengthen existing, surveillance, monitoring, reporting, and rapid response programs necessary to ensure EDRR at points of entry. Consideration of TLK and community-based monitoring programs should be encouraged. Response to Goal 3.ActionArctic Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan 2017https://www.caff.is/strategies-series/415-arctic-invasive-alien-species-strategy-and-action-planARIAS
Priority Action 3.3 Encourage the development and sharing of tools to enable EDRR for invasive alien species that may pose a substantial threat to the Arctic. Response to Goal 3.ActionArctic Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan 2017https://www.caff.is/strategies-series/415-arctic-invasive-alien-species-strategy-and-action-planARIAS
Priority Action 3.4 Actively facilitate the eradication of invasive alien species from island ecosystems throughout the Arctic as well as the recovery of native island species and habitats that have been impacted by those invasive alien species. Response to Goal 3.ActionArctic Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan 2017https://www.caff.is/strategies-series/415-arctic-invasive-alien-species-strategy-and-action-planARIAS
Priority Action 3.5 Develop guidance for the use and transfer of native and alien species to and throughout the Arctic environment, and identify opportunities to foster ecological resistance and resilience to environmental change. Response to Goal 3.ActionArctic Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan 2017https://www.caff.is/strategies-series/415-arctic-invasive-alien-species-strategy-and-action-planARIAS
Priority Action 3.6 Collect information on best practices and assess whether there is a need for International Maritime Organization to develop Arctic specific guidance for minimizing the threat posed by ballast water and biofouling as vectors for the transfer of aquatic invasive alien species from shipping. Response to Goal 3.ActionArctic Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan 2017https://www.caff.is/strategies-series/415-arctic-invasive-alien-species-strategy-and-action-planARIAS
3.7 Foster development of the innovative research, tools, and technologies needed to advance invasive alien species prevention and EDRR capacities in the Arctic region, including through support from funding programs. Response to Goal 3.ActionArctic Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan 2017https://www.caff.is/strategies-series/415-arctic-invasive-alien-species-strategy-and-action-planARIAS
Implementation Action 1.1 Action 1.1: Employ innovative approaches for awareness raising, including the use of multi-media platforms and collaboration with relevant industries (such as tourism, energy, fisheries, mining, and shipping) and local communities. Use
the outputs of priority Actions 2.1 and 2.2 to identify key messages, prioritize target audiences, and determine effective communications approaches
ActionArctic Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan 2017https://www.caff.is/strategies-series/415-arctic-invasive-alien-species-strategy-and-action-planARIAS
Implementation Action 1.2: In particular, consider the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments, and the IMO Guidelines for the control and management of ships’ biofouling to minimize the transfer of invasive aquatic species (Biofouling Guidelines);ActionArctic Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan 2017https://www.caff.is/strategies-series/415-arctic-invasive-alien-species-strategy-and-action-planARIAS
Implementation Action 1.3: Integrate invasive alien species issues, as appropriate, into all Arctic Council working groups and other subsidiary bodies. Use priority Actions 2.1 and 2.2 to establish linkages and priorities.ActionArctic Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan 2017https://www.caff.is/strategies-series/415-arctic-invasive-alien-species-strategy-and-action-planARIAS
Implementation Action 1.4: Examples of international efforts and legal and institutional frameworks where the outputs of the Arctic Council’s work on invasive alien species could be integrated include: Convention on Biological Diversity; International Maritime Organization; World Organization for Animal Health; Ramsar Convention; Convention on Migratory Species; Convention on the Law of Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses; and the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services.ActionArctic Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan 2017https://www.caff.is/strategies-series/415-arctic-invasive-alien-species-strategy-and-action-planARIAS
Implementation Action 2.1: Use tools such as risk analysis, horizon scanning, and site-based prioritization in identifying and assessing pathways that pose the greatest risk of biological invasions.ActionArctic Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan 2017https://www.caff.is/strategies-series/415-arctic-invasive-alien-species-strategy-and-action-planARIAS
Implementation Action 2.2: Priorities for topic-specific assessments of invasive alien species include assessments of: the current status, projected trends, and impacts of alien species in the Arctic region; pathways of biological invasion; legal and institutional frameworks for addressing invasive alien species in the Arctic (including for border controls and importation); regional prevention and EDRR capacities; and the relationship between invasive alien species and indigenous peoples/local communities in the Arctic. These assessments should utilize both TLK and science, as appropriate, including the outputs of priority Action 2.1.ActionArctic Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan 2017https://www.caff.is/strategies-series/415-arctic-invasive-alien-species-strategy-and-action-planARIAS
Implementation Action 2.5: The portal for information relevant to Arctic invasive alien species would include example scientific and technical information, best practices and tools, institutional and legal frameworks, and education/outreach materials. Utilize the Arctic Biodiversity Data Service (ABDS) and the CAFF website.ActionArctic Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan 2017https://www.caff.is/strategies-series/415-arctic-invasive-alien-species-strategy-and-action-planARIAS
Implementation Action 3.1: When collaborating with industries to develop and implement biosecurity measures, these measures may be voluntary (e.g. social marketing initiatives, local eradication programs, and codes of conduct) and/or legally binding (for example, national-level implementation of international standards). A Hazards Analysis Critical Control Points approach may be of particular value. Take the outputs of priority Actions 2.1 and 2.2 into consideration.ActionArctic Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan 2017https://www.caff.is/strategies-series/415-arctic-invasive-alien-species-strategy-and-action-planARIAS
Implementation Action 3.2: In order to facilitate early detection and rapid response, place emphasis on airports, sea ports, and their surrounding areas, take community based monitoring programs into consideration.ActionArctic Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan 2017https://www.caff.is/strategies-series/415-arctic-invasive-alien-species-strategy-and-action-planARIAS
Implementation Action 3.3: In order to facilitate early detection and rapid response, include decision support frameworks, cooperative agreements, flexible funding mechanisms, and technical tools such as watch lists, identification applications, and guides.ActionArctic Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan 2017https://www.caff.is/strategies-series/415-arctic-invasive-alien-species-strategy-and-action-planARIAS
1. Produce promotional material specific to each country that presents nationally relevant key findings of the State of the Arctic Freshwater Report (SAFBR):

1.1. Define the target audience for each country and identify what it is that they need. Meet with policymakers and managers to find out what questions they have and how our work could address these questions and management targets.
1.2. Extract the major findings of the SAFBR that are relevant to each country.
1.3. Develop a plan for each country to communicate these major findings in a way that addresses reporting demands for policy makers. This could include: Presentations; Press releases; Short 1-2 page documents with graphics and little text; and Policy briefs released through the CAFF Secretariat.

ActionCBMP Freshwater workplan 2020-20242019https://caff.is/proceedings-series/522-arctic-freshwater-biodiversity-monitoring-plan-2020-2024-work-planCBMP
2. Promote harmonized monitoring of Arctic freshwaters:

2.1. Define the target audience, including regional/national/international organizations and communities that conduct monitoring and identify what it is that they need. Consider approaching national/international funding organizations to suggest that using these harmonized methods should be a recommendation for funded researchers.
2.2. Develop a plan for each target audience to share and promote the harmonized sampling method handbook (results of Project 3).
3. Promote the use of and continued expansion of the database
3.1. Define the target users and contributors for the database. Consider approaching national/international funding organizations to suggest that funded researchers submit data to the freshwater database
ActionCBMP Freshwater workplan 2020-20252019https://caff.is/proceedings-series/522-arctic-freshwater-biodiversity-monitoring-plan-2020-2024-work-planCBMP
4. Promote sampling in hot and cool spots for data and/or diversity:

4.1. Define the target audience, which includes organizations/researchers/communities who are conducting monitoring in each country.
4.2. Identify data and/or diversity hotspots and cool spots (or characteristic/uncharacteristic sites) and locations of rapid change that we feel should be the focus of continued or new monitoring. Extract using database coverage and findings of the SAFBR/special issue.
4.3. Develop a plan to approach target audience and recommend where sampling should take place
ActionCBMP Freshwater workplan 2020-20262019https://caff.is/proceedings-series/522-arctic-freshwater-biodiversity-monitoring-plan-2020-2024-work-planCBMP
5. Promote CBMP-Freshwater products and results to international organizations and for international assessments:

5.1. Define the international organizations who are conducting relevant assessments and/or creating reports that the CBMP-Freshwater work can support.
5.2. Develop a plan and timeline for approaching target audience to suggest incorporation of CBMP-Freshwater findings.
ActionCBMP Freshwater workplan 2020-20272019https://caff.is/proceedings-series/522-arctic-freshwater-biodiversity-monitoring-plan-2020-2024-work-planCBMP
Project 1: Establish Coastal Expert Networks (CEN) for Each Arctic Coastal State

Task 1. Identify relevant experts to participate in the CENs
Task 2. establish schedule and approach for coordination of CEN
Task 3. develop first National Update for each Coastal State
Task 4. develop communications to inform and involve participants in the national CEN.
Ongoing coordination of CEN (methods and effort required will vary by state)
ActionCBMP Coastal implementation 2020-20222020 (tbc)[awaiting final completion]CBMP
Project 2: Coastscape Map Layer and Report

Task 1. Confirm process for development of coastscape map
Task 2. Translate existing maps into a coastscape map
Task 3. Assemble circumpolar coastscape map based on national information provided
Task 4. Develop a report to accompany the coastscape map layer
Task 5. Develop communications regarding launch of coastscape map
ActionCBMP Coastal implementation 2020-20232020 (tbc)[awaiting final completion]CBMP
Project 3: Geospatial Metadata Map Layers:

Task 1. Refines list of data needs, organization of layers, metadata summary table format, and preferred presentation of information (e.g., points vs polygons)
Task 2. Identify relevant information and secure permissions
Task 3. assemble map layers.
Task 4. Develops short report summarizing the process and data sources and providing an initial assessment of data/information sources available.
Task 5. Develop communications regarding launch of coastscape map
ActionCBMP Coastal implementation 2020-20242021 (tbc)[awaiting final completion]CBMP
Project 4: Reporting:

Task 1. Identify and develop case studies
Task 2. Identify participants to evaluate the process of co-production of knowledge in the Coastal group.
Task 3. Develop annual report to CAFF Board and workplan for 2023 and beyond
Task 4. Coordinate on the dissemination of the reports and other identified communications
ActionCBMP Coastal implementation 2020-20252022 (tbc)[awaiting final completion]CBMP
Submit annual performance reports and work plans describing progress in implementing and managing the Circumpolar Seabird Monitoring Plan,ActionCircumpolar Seabird Monitoring Plan2020https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planCbird, CBMP
1. Increase opportunities for cross-cultural learning, understanding and trust building.ActionArctic Traditional Knowledge and Wisdom: Changes in the North American Arctic2017https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTraditional Knowledge
2. Create best practices through demonstration projects, and on-the-ground work, including an evaluation of past projects, what worked, and what didn’t.ActionArctic Traditional Knowledge and Wisdom: Changes in the North American Arctic2017https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTraditional Knowledge
3. Develop effective partnerships and/or formalized systems of sharing among indigenous peoples and scientists to more fully engage this wide range of human intelligence to understand the complexities of managing biodiversity in the Arctic; for example, TK&W can provide early warnings of environmental
change, indicate connections between phenomena, and fill data gaps.
ActionArctic Traditional Knowledge and Wisdom: Changes in the North American Arctic2017https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTraditional Knowledge
4. Increase financial and other support for indigenous peoples and organizations to actively engage in research and science initiatives and to effectively address their concerns.ActionArctic Traditional Knowledge and Wisdom: Changes in the North American Arctic2017https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTraditional Knowledge
5. Encourage equal partnership and participation at the outset and throughout research projects that affect Arctic indigenous peoples.ActionArctic Traditional Knowledge and Wisdom: Changes in the North American Arctic2017https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTraditional Knowledge
6. Work to remove institutional barriers and improve processes for the inclusion of TK&W and involvement of Arctic indigenous peoples.ActionArctic Traditional Knowledge and Wisdom: Changes in the North American Arctic2017https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTraditional Knowledge
Develop binding agreements related to the conservation and/or sustainable use of biodiversity.AdviceArctic Biodiversity Congress 2014https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planCommunication and Outreach
Include biodiversity as a fundamental component of Environmental Impact Assessment, Strategic
Environmental Assessment and risk assessment in the Arctic.
AdviceArctic Biodiversity Congress 2014https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planCommunication and Outreach
Expand both the marine and terrestrial protected areas network and monitor its effectiveness at safeguarding biodiversity.AdviceArctic Biodiversity Congress 2014https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planCommunication and Outreach
Map biodiversity hot spots and biologically and ecologically sensitive areas at a scale appropriate for industry to use in their planning.AdviceArctic Biodiversity Congress 2014https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planCommunication and Outreach
Include biodiversity in national accounting so that the true value of healthy Arctic ecosystems is understood, and the true costs of biodiversity loss are accounted for.AdviceArctic Biodiversity Congress 2014https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planCommunication and Outreach
Develop tools for data sharing so that data collected can be used by a wide range of people engaged in Arctic biodiversity science, policy and management.AdviceArctic Biodiversity Congress 2014https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planCommunication and Outreach
Develop targets to stimulate actions and against which progress can be measured.AdviceArctic Biodiversity Congress 2014https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planCommunication and Outreach
Mainstream biodiversity; build partnerships with a wide range of stakeholders to seek innovative solutions and expand the responsibility for taking care of biodiversity.AdviceArctic Biodiversity Congress 2014https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planCommunication and Outreach
Develop realistic scenarios to help predict what could happen, given different policy options, in the short term (10 to 15 years) and the long term (over 50 years).AdviceArctic Biodiversity Congress 2014https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planCommunication and Outreach
Implement Ecosystem Based Management in marine, terrestrial, freshwater and coastal ecosystems.AdviceArctic Biodiversity Congress 2014https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planCommunication and Outreach
1.4.A Support production of special journal issues, as needed, to serve as the scientific foundations for the SABRsActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
1.4.B Proactive use of all resources to promote CBMP products including how the CAFF Board can be strategically engagedActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
1.4.C Encourage the development of journal articles based upon CBMP productsActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
1.4.D Support interdisciplinary networks within the CBMP to engage and conduct research that integrates monitoring and predictive scienceActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
1.4.E Continue to produce regular editions of the CBMP newsletter to keep the scientific community informed of CBMP news, events and initiatives ActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
1.4.F Find ways to facilitate increased engagement of young scientists and TLK holders, e.g. building upon the agreement between CAFF and the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS)ActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
1.4.G Continue annual meetings that serve as tools for improved networking and coordinationActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
1.4.H Support Expert Networks to strengthen coordination of monitoring ActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
1.4.I Focus on increasing observer country participation in the CBMP and investigate what scientific and/ or financial contributions they may make to the programActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
1.4.J Seek opportunities to support internships related to the CBMP activitiesActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
3.1.A Each Steering Group, at its annual meeting, will review and compile lessons learned from the previous year for dissemination to other monitoring groups ActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1, Objective 3.1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
3.1.B In turn, each Steering Group will review and consider lessons-learned from other Steering Groups each year, when developing annual work plansActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1, Objective 3.1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
3.1.C Evaluation of the CBMP Strategic Plan will is a standing item on the CAFF agenda every second year, where the CAFF Board will review progress, recommend actions to the CBMP Co-Leads, and make revisions as necessaryActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1, Objective 3.1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
3.1.D CBMP co-leads will consider lessons learned from previous years when developing subsequent CBMP strategic plansActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1, Objective 3.1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
3.1.E Coordinate activities between CBMP Expert Networks and Steering Groups to ensure alignment of activities and synergies where appropriate (including meetings, teleconferences, etc. as appropriate)ActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1, Objective 3.1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
3.1.F Coordinate activities between CBMP Steering Groups to ensure alignment of activities and synergies where appropriate (including meetings, teleconferences, etc. as appropriate) for example on integrating FECs across monitoring plansActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1, Objective 3.1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
3.1.G Consider impacts of stressors and drivers within reviews of the Arctic Biodiversity Monitoring PlansActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1, Objective 3.1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
3.1.H Continue development and implementation of the CBMP and its Arctic Biodiversity Monitoring Plans, e.g. through the development of annual work plans and progress reports.ActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1, Objective 3.1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
1.1.A CBMP Co-Leads and CAFF Secretariat to work with the CAFF Board to determine reporting needs for each State and Permanent Participant where CBMP information could be used to support decision-making.ActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1, Objective 1.1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
1.1.B Through a case study explore how CBMP data might fit in to other reporting requirements, e.g. EU directivesActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1, Objective 1.1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
1.1.C Take national, circumpolar and also global needs into account when planning follow-up to the SABRsActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1, Objective 1.1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
1.1.D Deliver key findings and recommendations from the CBMP to CAFF’s partners (e.g., by ensuring that the SABRs, and their indices and indicators are made available, easy and accessible to relevant partners)ActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1, Objective 1.1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
1.1.E Establish new partnerships through the CAFF Working Group as appropriate, to ensure that the CBMP is aligned to support CAFF input to local, national, circumpolar and global needsActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1, Objective 1.1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
1.1.F Work for enhanced Permanent Participant engagement in the CBMPActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1, Objective 1.1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
1.1.G Continue to work with existing partners (e.g., GEOBON, GBIF, OBIS) to further ensure information on Arctic biodiversity is available and feeds into relevant fora.ActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1, Objective 1.1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
1.2.A Map each CBMP activity to the Actions for Arctic Biodiversity Action Plan and consider how they are currently contributing to ABA implementation and how the CBMP might advance CAFF activities in the future (e.g. how the CBMP might contribute to implementation of the Arctic Invasive Alien Species (ARIAS) Strategy and Action Plan (2017)).ActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1, Objective 1.2 in CBMP Strategic Plan
1.2.B Map how CBMP activities help support the UN Sustainable Development GoalsActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1, Objective 1.2 in CBMP Strategic Plan
1.2.C Report on changes in Arctic species, ecosystems, and the effects of stressors through SABRs ActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1, Objective 1.2 in CBMP Strategic Plan
1.2.D Evaluate upon completion of the planned SABRs how these reports have responded to ABA conservation and research prioritiesActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1, Objective 1.2 in CBMP Strategic Plan
1.2.E Evaluate how the most efficient and relevant reporting can be structured in future upon completion of the planned SABRsActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1, Objective 1.2 in CBMP Strategic Plan
1.2.F Map how CBMP reporting, including on the FECs identified in each CBMP Arctic Biodiversity Monitoring Plan, aligns with each other and with the Actions for Arctic Biodiversity 2013–2021.ActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1, Objective 1.3 in CBMP Strategic Plan
1.3.A When developing CBMP products, gather information from diverse sources of knowledge and analyse them together with appropriate experts where possible. ActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1, Objective 1.3 in CBMP Strategic Plan
1.3.B Build a platform to allow for a co-production of knowledge process between Indigenous peoples and scientists.ActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1, Objective 1.3 in CBMP Strategic Plan
1.3.C Include TLK and science in any revisions of Arctic Biodiversity Monitoring Plans (e.g., when considering follow-up on the State of the Arctic Marine Biodiversity Report).ActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1, Objective 1.3 in CBMP Strategic Plan
1.3.D Seek participation from TK and LK holders, and support their capacity to participate meaningfully.ActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1, Objective 1.3 in CBMP Strategic Plan
1.3.E Continue to highlight the relevance of TK in communication and outreach efforts.ActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1, Objective 1.5 in CBMP Strategic Plan
1.5.A Review the Strategy for developing indices and indicators for monitoring Arctic biodiversity in the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program to ensure it reflects the CBD Aichi Targets and the Sustainable Development Goals and any post-2020 global biodiversity strategy that might be adopted in 2020ActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 1, Objective 1.5 in CBMP Strategic Plan
1.5.B Continue to report on existing indices/indicators of Arctic biodiversity, e.g., the Arctic Species Trend Index and protected areas indicator; and develop new ones, e.g. the Land Cover Change Index (LCC) and, in particular, indicators that can be used to understand cumulative effectsActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.1.A Complete the Arctic Coastal Biodiversity Monitoring PlanActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.1.B Continue to improve and implement the Arctic Marine Biodiversity Monitoring Plans, including incorporating advice for monitoring from the SABRs State of the Arctic Marine Biodiversity Report (CAFF 2017)ActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.1.C Complete the State of the Arctic Freshwater and Terrestrial Coastal Biodiversity ReportsActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.2.A Provide a “big picture” view that clarifies the relevance of the CBMP in the context of rapid changes and emerging issues in the ArcticActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.2 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.2.B Be responsive to target audience information needs and communications channels (i.e., language, medium, timeline)ActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.2 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.2.C Ensure that target audiences (e.g. decision-makers, public) have access to relevant informationActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.2 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.2.D Continue development of communications tools, including the CBMP newsletter, social media, short films and awareness-raising at conferences and workshopsActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.2 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.2.E Support, where possible and specifically useful, the translation of key documents and findings from CBMP activities into languages other than EnglishActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.2 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.2.F Continue development of the ABDS to make data and graphics from the CBMP products accessibleActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.2 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.2.G Continue release of annual CBMP Terrestrial-, Freshwater-, Marine- and Coastal monitoring group progress reports and workplansActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.2 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.2.H Continue to develop peer-reviewed scientific articles based on CBMP efforts to ensure access in scientific literature of CBMP outcomes and provide support to expert’s who work on CBMP-related activitiesActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.2 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.2.I Continue release of national one-page updates on activities related to each of the CBMP monitoring plansActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.2 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.3.A Engage national monitoring networks that feed into CBMP activitiesActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.3 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.3.B Identify other relevant networks and invite them to participate in the CBMPActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.3 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.3.C Provide support to networks e.g. through facilitating meetings, data support, securing funding, arranging meetings and bringing people together. ActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.3 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.4.A Establish an efficient working interface between CBMP and INTERACT, through a work package in the EU financed INTERACT projectActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.4 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.4.B Test the Arctic Freshwater and Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plans at three locations in the field in accordance with relevant CBMP protocolsActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.4 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.4.C Identify gaps in relation to the CBMP monitoring program at the three stationsActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.4 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.4.D Conduct field trials on selected FECs in the monitoring programs at these three stationsActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.4 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.4.E Consider how to replicate this work with the Marine and Coastal (once completed) Monitoring PlansActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.4 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.5.A Complete case studies where site specific user manual(s) are developed based on the Arctic Freshwater and Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plans and common protocols as appropriate ActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.5 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.5.B Consider how to replicate this at other stations or field sites across the ArcticActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.5 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.5.C Consider how to replicate and/or incorporate this kind of work with regards to the Marine and Coastal (once completed) Arctic Biodiversity Monitoring PlansActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.5 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.6.A Further develop the interoperability of the ABDS with national and global data centresActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.6 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.6.B Continue to make data retrieved through the CBMP accessible via the ABDS and ensure that it is interoperable with data partnerships where possible, e.g., GBIF and OBISActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.6 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.6.C Provide support to CBMP to ensure data it generates conforms to recognized standards and has metadata appliedActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.6 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.6.D Focus on data harmonization through integration of data across the Arctic for species and ecosystem components to allow for comparision and synthesing of dataActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.6 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.6.E Continue to work with Steering Groups, Expert Networks, and partners such as the Arctic Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) to consider issues of data access, visualization, metadata and standardizationActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.6 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.6.F Rescue older data from previous CAFF activities and make it accessible on the ABDSActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.6 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.6.G Develop a data management manual describing the flow of data from the field to CAFF assessments, including the harmonization of data across sites and scalesActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.6 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.6.H Increase the understanding and profile of the ABDS amongst target audiences and partnersActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.6 in CBMP Strategic Plan
2.6.I Expand the funding base and increase decision-maker support for the ABDS by engaging private and public funding agencies and identifying partners with complimentary mandates for cost and benefit sharingActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 2, Objective 2.6 in CBMP Strategic Plan
3.2.A Long-term monitoring efforts that have successfully allowed for priority pan-Arctic status and trend reporting in the SABRs will be summarized and presented to the CAFF Board for discussion regarding possible continuation of these efforts in four-year cyclesActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 3, Objective 3.2 in CBMP Strategic Plan
3.2.B Biodiversity status and trends identified in the SABRs will be summarized and presented to the CAFF Board for discussion on how to address these concernsActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 3, Objective 3.2 in CBMP Strategic Plan
3.2.C Priority monitoring gaps identified by the SAMBR will be summarized and presented to the CAFF Board for discussion guidance on how to address these gapsActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 3, Objective 3.2 in CBMP Strategic Plan
3.2.D The Freshwater and Terrestrial Steering Groups, upon completion of their SABRs, will follow a similar pattern to provide guidance on monitoring as determined from their SABRActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 3, Objective 3.2 in CBMP Strategic Plan
3.2.E Through engagement with the Arctic States and Permanent Participants ensure that the CBMP answers the most relevant questions they may haveActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 3, Objective 3.2 in CBMP Strategic Plan
3.3.A Complete SABRs for coastal freshwater and terrestrial (freshwater and marine are complete)ActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 3, Objective 3.3 in CBMP Strategic Plan
3.3.B Decide how and in which format the first coastal SABR should be completed based on lessons learned and new informationActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 3, Objective 3.3 in CBMP Strategic Plan
3.3.C Each Steering Group will develop a process to evaluate and prioritize FECs reported in each SABR and work together to develop an integrated CBMP SABR, and select the highest priority FECs that best serve as indicators of the State of their systemActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 3, Objective 3.3 in CBMP Strategic Plan
3.3.D Each Steering Group and Expert Network to consider how relevant journal articles, and/or special journal issues could support the CBMPActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 3, Objective 3.3 in CBMP Strategic Plan
3.3.E CBMP co-leads to work closely with the Marine Steering Monitoring Group as they emerge from completing their SABRs and work toward selecting priority FECs for future reportingActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 3, Objective 3.3 in CBMP Strategic Plan
3.3.F Evaluate and consider lessons learned from previous processes in support of developing future or integrated SABRs. ActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 3, Objective 3.3 in CBMP Strategic Plan
3.4.A Each Steering Group will, in their future work plans, include implementation actions related to this strategy, starting at their respective 2018 annual meetingActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 3, Objective 3.4 in CBMP Strategic Plan
3.4.B CBMP Co-Leads will provide guidance as to how this might be done e.g. a checklist-template to compare against existing monitoring plan(s) or completed SABRsActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 3, Objective 3.4 in CBMP Strategic Plan
3.4.C Coordinate activities between Steering Groups to advance alignment of activities and synergies where appropriate (including meetings, teleconferences, etc. as appropriate)ActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 3, Objective 3.4 in CBMP Strategic Plan
3.4.D To enable the adaptive process of the CBMP, and to guide the Expert Networks, the Steering Groups will describe how the adaptive process will be carried out within the CBMPActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 3, Objective 3.4 in CBMP Strategic Plan
4.1.A Work to strengthen the CAFF Secretariat’s capacity related to CBMP implementation, e.g. by integrating the CBMP Co-Leads closer to the Secretariat, to secure a more sustainable performance of key operationsActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 4, Objective 4.1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
4.1.B Continue to support and develop the organizational framework of Co-Lead States supported by the CAFF SecretariatActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 4, Objective 4.1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
4.1.C Work to Ensure that each Steering Group has a designated scientific assistant to help with coordination and key deliverablesActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 4, Objective 4.1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
4.1.D Continue to coordinate and improve outreach with other Arctic Council Working Groups and subsidiary bodies as relevantActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 4, Objective 4.1 in CBMP Strategic Plan
4.1.E Maintain strategic links with current organizations and initiatives and grow linkages with organizations as relevant (see objective 1.1)ActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 4, Objective 4.2 in CBMP Strategic Plan
4.2.A Continue to produce regular progress reports, work plans and national progress reports for each Steering Group, implementing a refined template for annual CBMP Steering Group reportsActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 4, Objective 4.2 in CBMP Strategic Plan
4.2.B Annual national implementation reports to be provided for each Arctic Biodiversity Monitoring PlanActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 4, Objective 4.2 in CBMP Strategic Plan
4.2.C Conduct a program review in 2020 to evaluate and adjust as needed the CBMP and its four Monitoring Plans with subsequent reviews occurring every five years. Review results may adjust FECs, attributes, sampling methods, data management and analysis, and reportingActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 4, Objective 4.2 in CBMP Strategic Plan
4.3.A CBMP Co-Leads and CAFF Secretariat develop a sustainable funding strategy for the CBMPActionsCBMP Strategic Plan 2018-20212018https://www.caff.is/monitoring-series/320-circumpolar-seabird-monitoring-planTo address goal 4, Objective 4.3 in CBMP Strategic Plan


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