Arctic Sea ice Ecosystem: A Summary of Species that Depend on and Associate with Sea ice and Projected Impacts from Sea Ice Changes

This paper describes several species which depend on sea ice for essential life functions including foraging, reproduction, protection from predators and cold water immersion, a platform for traveling, resting, and nursing, as well as some species that associate with sea ice for parts of the year. This paper specifically discusses ice algae and protists, Arctic cod, ivory gulls, thick-billed murres, spectacled and king eiders, polar bears, ringed seals, bearded seals, walruses, narwhals, beluga whales and bowhead whales. It identifies the different species‘ relationship with sea ice and the known and projected effects of a changing climate on them and their trophic relationships.

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